Leslies Case Summary

Saturday, March 19, 2022 6:17:27 AM

Leslies Case Summary



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The New B3 has 96 digital tonewheel generators whereas the original B3 and its siblings had 91 active tonewheels although there were actually 96 physical wheels in the generator, the unused ones being there to maintain the mechanical balance. However, if you do the sums, you'll find that there are actually different tones required to produce nine harmonics on a note keyboard. The original Hammonds overcame this problem by cheating — partial octaves were repeated at the top end of the keyboard, the repeating starting on different notes and octaves depending on the drawbar. On a stock B3 the 2-foot drawbar repeats only the top 'C' from the octave below, while the 1-foot drawbar repeats an octave and a half starting from the 'G', and the intermediate drawbars start repeating somewhere in between.

This arrangement is usually referred to as 'fold-down' and it is an essential element of the subtle but characteristic tonal quality of the B3 and its siblings. These organs had a subtly different, slightly brighter tonal character. The bottom octave of the lowest drawbar was also repeated from the octave above on the original B3 and its siblings, to avoid producing too muddy a sound the lowest tonewheel frequencies are normally only available on the pedals.

However, all the earlier and some later models retained the full range of the foot voice on the manuals and many B3s were hot-rodded to enable bass lines to be played with the true foot pitch notes in the bottom octave of the lower keyboard. So, returning from this small diversion, the New B3 has all 96 frequency generators available, and the fold-down configuration can be adjusted to set precisely where the top and bottom notes are repeated. The default mode is to replicate the stock B3, naturally, but it is simple to recreate the tonality of other Hammond organs, or indeed to create a new fold-down configuration. The B3 is an electromechanical rather than electronic instrument, with closer technological ties to an electric guitar than an electronic synthesizer.

The instrument is housed in a huge wooden case supported on four spindle legs, and a separate power amplifier and speaker system is required typically a Leslie rotary cabinet such as the The main case of the B3 alone weighs around pounds and the complete ensemble with pedalboard and bench is close to lbs roughly kg , making it less than popular with roadies! The musician is faced with a pair of note keyboards with square-fronted 'waterfall' keys, and a removable note flat radial pedalboard. The various controls are arranged across the full width of the instrument above the top keyboard, with various rocker tabs, drawbars and switches to control the tonality of the beast.

Each keyboard also has an octave of reverse-colour notes at the left-hand side which are actually latching switches to access one of nine user-programmable presets or one of the two sets of nine drawbars associated with each keyboard programming requires a screwdriver and the moving of sets of nine wires on various metal busbars in a frame inside the organ.

Although the B3 is probably the best-known Hammond model, there were several near-identical siblings, differing mainly in their case design with some minor feature-set changes. For example, a more ecclesiastical case style was available as the C3 model, and built-in reverb, amplification and speakers were added for the A For more classical applications there were also the RT3 and D instruments which had a note concave pedalboard and some additional pedal voice-generation circuitry the RT3 used a C3-style case while the D was similar to the A with built-in amplification and speakers.

The nine drawbars are the musical heart of the organ, allowing the sound to be built up using individual pure tone near sine-wave harmonics, each at any of nine volume settings Off and 1 to 8. Based on pipe-organ parlance, the fundamental drawbar is an 'eight-foot' voice the dimension represents the length of pipe required to produce a middle 'C' pitch. There are also , 4-, 2-, and 1-foot drawbars producing one octave below and consecutive octaves above the fundamental sub-octave, 8th-, 15th- and 22nd-scale intervals respectively.

Some models also included a spring-type reverb unit. In fact, the tonewheel generator, key contacts, drawbars and transformer mixing arrangements changed very little from the original Model A throughout the entire life of the tonewheel console instruments. There were actually only relatively minor incremental changes to the other aspects of the machine too — and so the essential sound remained almost identical throughout the tonewheel Hammond's long life of over 40 years. The most significant difference between a B3 and its earliest predecessors was the introduction of the 'scanner' and associated delay line to generate the vibrato and chorus effects. The original Model B launched in was fitted with a complete second tonewheel generator set using slightly sharp and flat tonewheels to enable the creation of a realistic chorus effect with a massive increase in weight too!

In the early s, the first scanner and delay line system was introduced to the model line-up, producing the V variant such as the Model BV , and this design was improved to enable the effect to be applied to each keyboard independently in , with the release of the Model B2. Hidden in a pull-out drawer under the right-hand side of the lower keyboard is the 'Information Centre. Everything that was inherently adjustable or which varied with different B3 models can be configured here, along with many hot-rodding parameters to suit pretty much any personal preference spanning the full range of B3 characteristics.

So, the tonewheel set can be changed independently on manuals and pedals to give different tonalities, and the percussion volume, sustain, keyboard level, and 1-foot cancel mode can also be adjusted. The pull-out Information Centre is a powerful addition to the new B3, allowing you to edit many of the parameters relating to sound generation. On a stock B3 the keyboard drawbar level is reduced by about 3dB when the percussion is switched to its Normal loud mode in order to preserve the overall volume, but many players prefer to disable this function and that can be replicated on the New B3. Similarly, the 1-foot drawbar is normally disabled when Percussion is switched on the 1-foot key contacts are used to trigger the sustain circuit but many players rewire the organ to use a less important drawbar contact so that the 1-foot pitch remains available when percussion is used.

Again, this feature can be replicated through the Information Centre menus. A rather more unusual feature is that the vibrato rate can also be changed, the expression pedal minimum volume can be adjusted, and the volume versus position curve altered. The side switch on the expression pedal can also be programmed either to toggle the Leslie speed, force the Leslie to run fast while pressed, or to act as a sustain damper pedal probably most useful for controlling external MIDI sound generators.

Standard Liturgic, Jazz, or Theatre voice banks can be allocated to the preset keys or user-programmed variations , and there are facilities to store or recall preset voices to and from a Type I compact Flash Card. The latter can only be accessed by removing the rear panel of the case, which seems unnecessarily awkward. However, since all settings and custom configurations, including the MIDI setups, can be stored in both the internal user memories and the CF card, a touring Hammond player could carry his or her own preferences to instantly reconfigure another New B3 anywhere in the world. The control panel tucked under the left-hand side of the B3 contains the headphone and two Leslie remote-control jacks, plus the all-important volume, bass, treble, reverb level and overdrive knobs — essential tone-shaping controls to give your B3 sound the character you want.

You can also select a digital reverb type, the overall tuning pitch, key-transposition modes, and the MIDI configuration, and the organ's output tonality can be optimised for solid-state or valve Leslies. Given the attention to detail in other aspects of this replica, it's a shame that while the built-in digital reverb facility includes programs for two halls, three rooms, two churches and a plate, there is no spring-reverb setting — a popular choice of effect with real Hammonds. The pedalboard on the original B3 was effectively just another keyboard, so it was therefore fully polyphonic and the notes stopped when the pedals were released.

Some later instruments used an electronic system for generating pedal tones and introduced a plucked-string effect where the note decays slowly after the pedal is released, but with the side effect that the pedals became monophonic highest note priority. Needless to say, the New B3 can be configured through the Information Centre for normal or muted softer bass pedals, polyphonic or monophonic operation, and pedal sustain can be switched on or off with a user-determined decay time scaled simply from 1 to 5.

The keyboards are velocity-sensitive and zone-mappable with octave-switching facilities, and the reverse-key presets and drawbars can be used to send program and channel control data. The pre-production models of the New B3 were also equipped with aftertouch as on the XB3 but apparently this has been dropped from the production models because it made the key action too long and detracted from the accuracy of the replica — and few players felt it a necessary feature anyway.

This is because the note generation is controlled by the physical key contacts, and can therefore not be activated remotely. After playing the New B3 I can say with all confidence that this instrument is virtually indistinguishable from an original machine — certainly judging by sound alone. Naturally, with the same controls placed exactly where they should be it feels very familiar to play too. Although the stock sound is stunningly faithful, it is also easily tweaked to closer replicate the broad range of real Hammond organ tonalities from bright or even screaming, through smooth and mellow, to downright dirty! The adoption of individual contacts for each drawbar pitch on every note not only produces real key-click with all the inherent variations each time a note is played , but also causes the different harmonics to be introduced one at a time as a note is pressed slowly.

Some players claim this is an important performance aspect of the instrument — a kind of touch sensitivity — and although I'm not personally convinced by the argument, the effect is there anyway! I found the key click initially rather more prominent than I like, personally, but a gentle reduction in the treble control soon brought a balance which was more to my liking. This was using the standard B3 tonewheel set, and when I changed to the Mellow set I discovered an overall sound much closer to my own vintage A From the performance point of view I found the keys to be a little more 'springy' than my own Hammond, but then the review organ was brand new, whereas mine has been played for 40 years, which is bound to make the keys a little slack!

With the waterfall-fronted keys, palm glissandos are as easy and satisfying as on the original, and the drawbars again a little tighter and 'notchier' than my own instrument were delightful to 'play'. The customisation features accessed through the Information Centre expand the flexibility of this instrument considerably, and I particularly found the ability to adjust the volume of the percussion and keyboard useful. The pedal sustain was also nice for some kinds of music, and the facility to change the tonewheel set and fold-down configuration is excellent, allowing the user to change the entire character of the organ from a bright, s-sounding instrument with the late-model high-end filter networks installed, to a more mellow s organ full of crosstalk, beer and smoke — and all at the touch of a few buttons!

As they say in the best jazz clubs: "Niiice The adjustable overdrive is fantastic too — this is the one of the most natural valve-overdrive systems I have yet heard, really capturing the traditional effect and allowing everything from full-on Jon Lord rock grunge, to a gentle grit, to an ultra-clean gospel sound. I wish it was that easy to change the amount of distortion on my vintage organ! The Leslie XB is well established and makes all the right kinds of noises — both electrical and mechanical — and the inclusion of the Brake mode which stops the drum and horn completely is a welcome facility.

Although I'm not used to using it, the Leslie speed switch on the expression pedal makes it easy to play with both hands while still winding the Leslie up and down. However, this can also lead to some confusion as the half-moon Leslie control switch on the bottom keyboard rail can end up out of sync with the Leslie's actual status, and you have to change the switch position to regain control. I found it less confusing to reconfigure the expression pedal switch so that it had a momentary action which forced the Leslie to fast mode. I don't think there can be any doubt that the New B3 is a true replica of an original B3 — both in terms of the look and layout, and the actual sound.

I honestly don't believe anyone could tell the new instrument apart from an original if it was set up appropriately. This new organ looks the same, it sounds the same, it plays the same, it has the same quirks and characteristics, but it can also be tweaked and configured to replicate the most common and important hot-rodding techniques, which extend its capabilities just enough to satisfy the widest possible range of B3 lovers.

Although I am ecstatic that Hammond-Suzuki have laboured for so long and so lovingly to recreate the original Hammond tonewheel sound with modern technology, I'm not entirely clear as to the intended market. This instrument is seriously expensive and more than twice the price of a really nice original tonewheel Hammond complete with Leslie. Okay, so B3's are extremely rare in the UK — but they do still turn up — while C3s and As are widely available and cost a fraction of the asking price for a New B3 and XB.

Having said that, an original instrument is going to be at least 30 years old, so will need regular and sometimes expensive maintenance. It is also extremely heavy and difficult to gig with, and the tonality of each instrument is more or less fixed unless you are prepared to give it a major overhaul and makeover. It won't have MIDI either, and although this can be retrofitted, there are serious compromises and it is an extremely expensive process. Compared to all that, the New B3 is substantially lighter, has far more flexible tonality, built-in MIDI facilities, and should prove as reliable as any other modern keyboard.

So to whom will it appeal? The average gigging keyboard player looking for a Hammond-esque sound is already pretty well catered for, and I would have thought that most serious Hammond nuts would prefer to cosset an original instrument since the idiosyncrasies of an old tonewheel Hammond are an inherent, almost organic part of its character, just like a much-loved original Fender guitar. However, there are many home organists who might like to go down this route, and with a MIDI expansion rack to provide additional voices such as strings, brass, pianos and so on, the New B3 would make a fabulous centrepiece for an impressive home setup — and with a cost not too dissimilar from some of the state-of-the-art home organs currently available.

Apparently Hammond foresee the biggest market area to be Gospel churches, especially in the USA, and professional Hammond players — like Jimmy Smith, for example, who is already using one of the new B3s — will appreciate the convenience and reliability of the new model too.

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