Maslows Hierarchy Of Needs Date
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Expanded Maslows Hierarchy
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Maslow postulated that there were several prerequisites to meeting these needs. In addition to these needs, Maslow also believed that we have a need to learn new information and to better understand the world around us. This is partially because learning more about our environment helps us meet our other needs; for example, learning more about the world can help us feel safer, and developing a better understanding of a topic one is passionate about can contribute to self-actualization.
However, Maslow also believed that this call to understand the world around us is an innate need as well. Although Maslow presented his needs in a hierarchy, he also acknowledged that meeting each need is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon. Maslow suggests that, at any given time, most people tend to have each of their needs partly met—and that needs lower on the hierarchy are typically the ones that people have made the most progress towards.
Additionally, Maslow pointed out that one behavior might meet two or more needs. For example, sharing a meal with someone meets the physiological need for food, but it might also meet the need of belonging. Similarly, working as a paid caregiver would provide someone with income which allows them to pay for food and shelter , but can also provide them a sense of social connection and fulfillment.
In a study of human needs across cultures, researchers Louis Tay and Ed Diener looked at data from over 60, participants in over different countries. They found that meeting these needs was indeed linked to well-being. For example, people living in poverty might have had trouble meeting their needs for food and safety, but these individuals still sometimes reported feeling loved and supported by the people around them. According to Baumeister and Leary, feeling that one belongs is a fundamental need, and they suggest that feeling isolated or left out can have negative consequences for mental and physical health.
Modell, Harold, et al. Holt-Lunstad, Julianne, et al. Tay, Louis, and Ed Deiner. Ryff, Carol D. Pillow, David R. Share Flipboard Email. Elizabeth Hopper. Psychology Expert. Elizabeth Hopper, Ph. Updated February 24, In this theory, higher needs in the hierarchy begin to emerge when people feel they have sufficiently satisfied the previous need. View Article Sources. Cite this Article Format. Hopper, Elizabeth. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Explained. Understanding Maslow's Theory of Self-Actualization. What Is Self-Determination Theory? Through his interviews and studies, he came to categorize a hierarchical list of needs that need to be fulfilled for increasing life satisfaction:.
The Physiological Needs such as breathing, food, drink, sleep, sex, excretion are largely and obviously biological and physical requirements. When they are not fulfilled, people become preoccupied with filling those needs above all else. For example, starving people in a war zone can be oblivious to danger when in search of food Maslow, , pp. Once the basic needs are fulfilled, other needs invariably arise Maslow, , pp. Economic, social, vocational, psychological security all fall underneath this second tier of human needs. As social beings, family, friendships and intimate connections get many people through the ups and downs of life. Numerous studies have shown that the healthiest, happiest people tend to be more involved in their communities. While there is debate on whether one causes the other is unclear, there is some sense that having wider social connections and relationships are an important part of being happy.
Lack of interactions, human relationships, and the sense of belonging may result in depression or loneliness while an abundance of love and community often sustain people through difficult times Maslow, , pp. Abraham Maslow felt there was a clear distinction between love and respect or esteem. He felt that an ability to feel self-esteem and personal uniqueness sprung from being loved and embraced by families and communities. As individuals, we naturally wish to excel or be exceptional, to be noticed for our unique talents and capabilities. Once one has some measure of self-esteem and confidence, one gains the psychological freedom to be creative and to grow as well as to be more generous to others Maslow, , pp.
What a man can be, he must be. This need we may call self-actualization…It refers to the desire for self-fulfillment, namely, to the tendency for him to become actualized in what he is potentially. This tendency might be phrased as the desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming. Maslow, , Motivation and Personality, p. Self-actualizing people enjoy life in general and practically all its aspects, while most other people enjoy only stray moments of triumph … Maslow, , p. Abraham Maslow refers to peak experiences as the experience of happiness.
He notes above that self-actualized people tend to experience a steadier, grounded sense of well-being and satisfaction with life. According to Maslow, self-actualizing people perceive reality accurately; they have a sense of awe, wonder, and gratitude about life. They are not self-centered but rather problem-centered and focus on how to improve and are not deficiency-centered. They are independent thinkers and are not overly influenced by the general culture. They have a deeply felt sense of kinship with the human race.
Growth takes place when the next step forward is subjectively more delightful, more joyous, more intrinsically satisfying than the previous gratification which we have become familiar and even bored Maslow, , p. And so, consciously or unconsciously, one works to fill these needs — literally or symbolically. On the other hand, healthy people who have fulfilled these lower needs are able to act based on the desire to grow rather than being motivated by deficiencies. Simply put, their deficiencies do not determine their actions and instead, they are motivated by growth and fulfillment!
It is from a position of psychological well-being that one is able to pursue what Maslow perceived as the universal human tendency to strive for growth, autonomy, identity and the excellence of self-actualization Maslow, , pp. This suggests a much more organic, integrated relationship between each of the different stages. We can be struggling to fulfill our basic physical needs food, drink, sleep, etc but still feel a need to pursue stability in our homes and receive love and esteem within our communities. For some, love needs may come after esteem needs, but both are necessary in different ways and degrees Maslow, , pp. Maslow found these peak experiences to be rare and difficult to describe.
Their most important contribution is their ability to promote growth and cause one to change in a profound way Maslow, , p. Abraham Maslow notes that feelings of intense happiness associated with peak experiences would always be fleeting. In fact, he discouraged people from expecting peak experiences to be anything other than temporary. He seemed to feel that it was only when people accepted this that they were free to settle into personal well-being and happiness. He found that not all self-actualizing people had peak experiences, but noted a higher degree of satisfaction for those who did experience them versus those who did not Maslow, , p.
Though he acknowledged the possibility that psychological disorders may have some physical or biological factors, Maslow saw social, educational, political, familial, etc. This view allows Maslow to be optimistic about reversing pathologies and neuroses. He is especially hopeful about being able to restore children back to psychological health by applying his principles of the hierarchy of needs. The point is, for Maslow, psychological illness does not have to happen and if it does, there are ways to reverse its effects or, at the very least, to improve the situation.