Richard Nixon Impeachment
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Told by his doctors that he could either be operated on or die, a reluctant Nixon chose surgery, and Ford visited him in the hospital. Nixon was under subpoena for the trial of three of his former aides John Dean , H. Haldeman , and John Ehrlichman. The pardon would have put Nixon in a difficult position on the witness stand since he would not have been able to assert any Fifth Amendment privilege when questioned about his actions as president. The Washington Post , disbelieving his illness, printed a cartoon showing Nixon with a cast on the "wrong foot". Judge John Sirica excused Nixon's presence despite the defendants' objections. Supreme Court decision which states that a pardon carries an imputation of guilt and that acceptance carries a confession of guilt.
Kennedy Library Foundation awarded the John F. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. President Gerald Ford. President Ford announcing his decision to pardon former-president Nixon to the American people. Gerald R. Retrieved December 22, Retrieved November 4, Ford Pardoning Richard Nixon". Great Speeches Collection. The History Place. Retrieved December 30, Retrieved November 27, The New York Times. Retrieved September 8, August 19, Archived from the original on January 30, Retrieved July 24, Silent Coup: The Removal of a President. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN OCLC October 17, Retrieved November 22, Retrieved May 17, The Presidency Educational Resources.
Retrieved January 2, JFK Library Foundation. May 1, Retrieved March 31, Retrieved January 5, Pardon of Richard Nixon. Richard Nixon. Senator from California — U. Representative for CA — General Services Administration Death and state funeral. Six Crises Bibliography. House of Representatives: U. Senate: California gubernatorial election: GOP presidential primaries: GOP national conventions: campaign Presidential elections: debates Gerald Ford. Representative for MI-5 — Early life Gerald R.
Ford Jr. Boyhood Home Gerald R. Ford Presidential Museum Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library. Ford International Airport Gerald R. A career as a small-town lawyer was not enough for a man with Nixon's ambition, so in August , he and Pat moved to Washington, D. He soon became disillusioned with the New Deal's big-government programs and bureaucratic red tape, though, and left the public service realm for the U. Navy despite his an exemption from military service as a Quaker and in his job with OPA. Serving as an aviation ground officer in the Pacific, Nixon saw no combat, but he returned to the United States with two service stars and several commendations.
He eventually rose to the rank of lieutenant commander before resigning his commission in January Following his return to civilian life, Nixon was approached by a group of Whittier Republicans who encouraged him to run for Congress. Nixon would be up against five-term liberal Democratic Jerry Voorhis, but he took on the challenge head-on. Nixon's campaign exploited notions about Voorhis's alleged communist sympathies, a tactic that would recur throughout his political life, and it worked, helping Nixon win a seat in the U. House of Representatives in November There he quickly established a reputation as an internationalist in foreign policy. While many believed Hiss, Nixon took the allegations that Hiss was spying for the Soviet Union to heart.
In dramatic testimony before the committee, Hiss vehemently denied the charge and refuted claims made by his accuser, Whittaker Chambers. Nixon brought Hiss to the witness stand, and under stinging cross-examination, Hiss admitted that he had known Chambers, but under a different name. This brought Hiss a perjury charge and five years in prison, while Nixon's hostile questioning of Hiss during the committee hearings went a long way toward cementing his national reputation as a fervent anti-Communist.
Employing his previous successful campaign tactics, Nixon's campaign staff distributed flyers on pink paper unfairly distorting Douglas's voting record as left-wing. For his efforts, The Independent Review , a small Southern California newspaper, nicknamed Nixon "Tricky Dick," a derogatory nickname that would remain with him for the rest of this life. Nixon's fervent anti-Communist reputation earned him the notice of Dwight D. Eisenhower and the Republican Party, who believed he could draw valuable support in the West.
And at the Republican convention in , Nixon won the nomination as vice president. Two months before the November election, the New York Post reported that Nixon had a secret "slush fund" provided by campaign donors for his personal use, and some within Eisenhower's campaign called for removing Nixon from the ticket. Realizing that he might not win without Nixon, Eisenhower was willing to give Nixon a chance to clear himself. On September 23, , Nixon delivered a nationally televised address in which he acknowledged the existence of the fund but denied that any of it had been used improperly. He turned the speech back on his political enemies, claiming that unlike the wives of so many Democratic politicians, his wife, Pat, did not own a fur coat but only "a respectable Republican cloth coat.
Although Nixon initially thought that the speech had failed, the public responded to what became known as the "Checkers Speech. Stevenson and John Sparkman, and Nixon avoided a full-on political disaster. Between and , Eisenhower suffered a series of illnesses, including a heart attack and a stroke. Although Nixon held little formal power as vice president, perhaps out of necessity, he expanded the office to an important and prominent post during his two terms. As president of the Senate, he helped ensure the passage of Eisenhower-approved bills, such as the Civil Rights Bill.
While the president was incapacitated, Nixon was called on to chair several high-level meetings, though real power lay in a close circle of Eisenhower advisers. The health scares prompted Eisenhower to formalize an agreement with Nixon on the powers and responsibilities of the vice president in the event of presidential disability; the agreement was accepted by later administrations until the adoption of the 25th Amendment to the U.
Constitution in Initially, Nixon's efforts to promote American foreign policy met with mixed results, as he undertook many high-profile foreign trips of goodwill to garner support for American policies during the Cold War. On one such trip to Caracas, Venezuela, Nixon's motorcade was attacked by anti-American protesters, who pelted his limousine with rocks and bottles.
Nixon came out unscathed and remained calm and collected during the incident. On July 24, while touring the exhibits with Soviet General Secretary Nikita Khrushchev , Nixon stopped at a model of an American kitchen and engaged Khrushchev in an impromptu debate. In a friendly yet determined way, both men argued the merits of capitalism and communism, respectively, as it affected the average American and Soviet housewives. Nixon launched his bid for the presidency in early , facing little opposition in the Republican primaries.
His democratic opponent was Massachusetts Senator John F. Nixon campaigned on his experience, but Kennedy brought a new vitality to the election and called for a new generation of leadership, criticizing the Eisenhower administration for endangering U. Besides defending the administration during the campaign, Nixon advocated for a series of selective tax cuts that would become a core doctrine of Republican economic policy going forward. The presidential campaign proved to be historic in the use of television for advertisements, news interviews and policy debates, something that would play right into Kennedy's youthful hands.
Four debates were scheduled between Nixon and Kennedy, and Nixon had his work cut out for himself from the beginning. During the process, he was recovering from the flu and appeared tired, and then when he arrived at the TV studio, Nixon chose to wear little TV makeup, fearing the press would accuse him of trying to upstage Kennedy's tan, crisp look. Though he had shaved, Nixon's "five o'clock shadow" appeared through the cameras, and his gray suit blended into the studio's gray background in contrast to Kennedy's tailored dark suit. Also, Nixon was still sweating out his illness, and his perspiration under the hot studio lights was picked up by the cameras in close-ups as he responded to questions. In short, he never looked half as healthy, young or vibrant as Kennedy.
Showing the power of the new visual medium, post-debate polls indicated that while many TV viewers believed Kennedy had won the debates, radio listeners indicated that they thought Nixon had won. In November , Nixon narrowly lost the presidential election, by only , votes. The Electoral College showed a wider victory for Kennedy, who received votes to Nixon's Though there were some charges of voter fraud in Texas and Illinois and legal papers were filed, subsequent court rulings showed that Kennedy had a greater number of electoral votes even after recounts.
Not wanting to cause a Constitutional crisis, Nixon halted further investigations, later receiving praise for his dignity and professionalism in the face of defeat and suspicion that possible voter fraud had cost him the presidency. Following the election, Nixon returned with his family to California, where he practiced law and wrote a book, Six Crises , which documented his political life as a congressman, senator and vice president.
Nixon was at first reluctant to get into another political battle so soon after his disappointing defeat to Kennedy, but eventually, he decided to run. The campaign did not go well for Nixon, with some observers questioning his sincerity to be governor of California and accusing him of making the election a stepping stone back into national politics. Others felt he just wasn't enthusiastic enough. He lost to Brown by a substantial margin, and many political experts characterized the defeat as the end of Nixon's political career. He himself said as much, blaming the media for his defeat and lamenting, "You won't have Nixon to kick around anymore After the California election, Nixon moved his family to New York City, where he continued to practice law and quietly but effectively remade himself as America's "senior statesman.
He cultivated support from the Republican base, which respected his knowledge of politics and international affairs. He also wrote a farsighted article for Foreign Affairs magazine entitled "Asia After Vietnam," which enhanced his reputation. Yet, Nixon agonized over whether to reenter politics and go for another run at the presidency. He consulted friends and respected leaders such as the Reverend Billy Graham for advice. Finally, he formally announced his candidacy for president of the United States on February 1, Nixon's campaign received an unexpected boost when on March 31, incumbent President Lyndon Johnson announced he would not seek another term. By , the nation was openly struggling over the war in Vietnam, not only on college campuses but in mainstream media.
In February, newscaster Walter Cronkite took an almost unprecedented for him position, offering commentary on his recent trip to Vietnam, stating that he felt victory was not possible and that the war would end in a stalemate. Nixon was able to construct a coalition of Southern and Western conservatives during the campaign. In exchange for their support, he promised to appoint "strict constructionists" to the federal judiciary and selected a running mate acceptable to the South, Maryland governor Spiro Agnew. The two waged an immensely effective media campaign with well-orchestrated commercials and public appearances.
They attacked Democrats for the nation's high crime rate and a perceived surrender of nuclear superiority to the Soviets. For a time, the Democrats still held the high ground in the polls, but the assassination of presidential contender Robert Kennedy and a self-destructive nominating convention in Chicago, where Vice President Hubert Humphrey was nominated, weakened their chances. During the entire election campaign, Nixon portrayed a "calm amidst the storm" persona, promising a "peace with honor" conclusion to the war in Vietnam, a restoration of America's preeminence over the Soviets and a return to conservative values. In a three-way race between Nixon, Humphrey and independent candidate George Wallace, Nixon won the election by nearly , votes.
He was sworn in as the 37th president of the United States on January 20, Prussian statesman Otto von Bismarck once called politics "the art of the possible. He offered a practical solution he called "New Federalism": locally controlled desegregation. Across the South, the Nixon administration established biracial committees to plan and implement school desegregation. The program was well accepted by the states, and by the end of only about 18 percent of Black children in the South were attending all-Black schools, down from 70 percent in As president, Nixon also increased the number of female appointments in his administration, despite opposition from many in his administration.
He created a Presidential Task Force on Women's Rights, requested that the Department of Justice bring sex-discrimination suits against blatant violators and ordered the Department of Labor to add sex discrimination guidelines to all federal contracts. Some of President Nixon's well-intentioned domestic policies under New Federalism clashed with the Democrat-controlled Congress and were fraught with unintended consequences. A case in point was the Family Assistance Plan.
The program called for replacing bureaucratically administered programs such as Aid to Families With Dependent Children, Food Stamps and Medicaid with direct cash payments to those in need, including single-parent families and the working poor. Conservatives disliked the plan for guaranteeing an annual income to people who didn't work, the labor movement saw it as a threat to the minimum wage and federal caseworkers saw the program as a threat to their jobs. Many Americans complained that adding the working poor to Welfare would expand the program rather than reduce it.
Though initially not showing much interest in environmental concerns, after the Earth Day, with millions of demonstrations across the country, President Nixon sensed a political opportunity and a need.