How Did Religion Affect The Puritans In The 1600s

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How Did Religion Affect The Puritans In The 1600s

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Pilgrims, Puritans, and Separatists (Calvinist Settlers in Colonial New England)

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In , William Penn began a Quaker colony in the land that was later named after him: Pennsylvania. The main settlement was Philadelphia, which prospered through farming and commerce. In , 14, Huguenots who were persecuted in France also joined the growing English colonies. Early immigrants to America settled up and down the East Coast. Farming was difficult in the rocky soil of New England, so people grew only enough food for their families to live on. This is called subsistence farming. They also became fishermen, fishing cod in the Atlantic Ocean and selling it to the European markets.

As they needed good ships for fishing, they started making them, becoming successful shipbuilders. In the South, where farming was easier, colonists started large plantations to grow crops, such as tobacco, rice, and indigo. Indigo was a rich blue dye, mainly used for dyeing textiles. Plantations depended on the free labor of the slaves. Many more slaves were forced to come to America to meet the demand for labor. By the time of the Revolutionary War, about 2. As the colonies grew, people began to look past the natural barrier of the Appalachian Mountains. They moved west into the frontier lands, in what is now Ohio, and beyond. The colonies grew prosperous and the population increased.

Between the time of the first settlements and the Revolutionary War, about seven generations of people were born in America. Many of them no longer wanted to be ruled by the English throne. And they didn't want to pay taxes to the English government when they had no colonial representation in the Parliament. The Loyalists were colonists who wanted to remain part of England. The Patriots and Loyalists were bitterly divided on the issue. In , the Continental Congress, a group of leaders from each of the 13 colonies, issued the Declaration of Independence. The Declaration stated that the United States of America was its own country. The Patriots fought England in the Revolutionary War to gain independence for the colonies.

In , with the help of the French, who had joined their side, the colonists won the war. The United States of America was a new nation. The new government conducted a census, or count, of everyone living in the United States. At the time of the first census in , nearly ,00 Africans and 3 million Europeans lived in the new United States. In the decades after the Revolutionary War, the 13 original colonies grew to include states stretching from Maine in the north to Louisiana in the south; from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to Illinois in the west.

As a new nation, the United States of America thrived. By , the population had grown to nearly 10 million people. The quality of life for ordinary people was improving. People were moving west, creating towns along the route of the Transcontinental Railroad, which connected the entire country by rail, east to west, for the first time. The prosperous young country lured Europeans who were struggling with population growth, land redistribution, and industrialization, which had changed the traditional way of life for peasants.

These people wanted to escape poverty and hardship in their home countries. More than 8 million would come to the United States from to At the turn of the 19th century, more than 1 million African Americans lived in the United States. As slaves, they were not considered citizens. Large farms and plantations depended on the free labor they provided in fields and homes. It was difficult, backbreaking work. In , the United States government banned the importation of enslaved people into the country, although the practice did continue illegally. Slavery, however, was not abolished for nearly 60 more years.

In the early and midth century, nearly all of the immigrants coming to the United States arrived from northern and western Europe. In , seven out of 10 foreign-born people in the United States were Irish or German. Most of the Irish were coming from poor circumstances. With little money to travel any further, they stayed in the cities where they arrived, such as Boston and New York City. More than 2,, Irish arrived between and The Germans who came during the time period were often better off than the Irish were.

They had enough money to journey to the Midwestern cities, such as Chicago, Cincinnati, and St. Louis, or to claim farmland. More than 2,, Germans arrived between and In , a famine began in Ireland. A potato fungus, also called blight, ruined the potato crop for several years in a row. Potatoes were a central part of the Irish diet, so hundreds of thousands of people now didn't have enough to eat. At the same time of the famine, diseases, such as cholera, were spreading. Starvation and disease killed more than a million people. These extreme conditions caused mass immigration of Irish people to the United States. Between and , more than a million Irish are estimated to have arrived in America.

The men found jobs building railroads, digging canals, and working in factories; they also became policemen and firemen. Irish women often worked as domestic servants. Even after the famine ended, Irish people continued to come to America in search of a better life. More than 3. In the early s, the United States was in crisis. The Northern states and Southern states could not agree on the issue of slavery.

Most people in the Northern states thought slavery was wrong. People in South, where the plantations depended on slavery, wanted to continue the practice. In , the Civil War began between the North and South. It would be an extremely bloody war; over , people would die in the fighting. Many immigrants fought in the war. Since immigrants had settled mostly in the North, where factories provided jobs and small farms were available, hundreds of thousands of foreign-born men fought for the Union. In , President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which declared that all the slaves in the rebelling Southern states were free. It was the beginning of the end of slavery. To ensure that the abolishment of slavery was permanent, Congress passed the 13th Amendment to the Constitution, which outlawed slavery throughout the United States.

The 14th Amendment, adopted in , declared that African Americans were citizens of the United States. In , African Americans numbered almost 5 million and made up In the late 19th century, America was looking west. People began moving away from the now crowded Eastern cities. Some were motivated by the Homestead Act of , which offered free land from the government. The government offered to give acres of land—considered a good size for a single family to farm—in areas including Minnesota, Iowa, Kansas, and Nebraska.

Homesteaders were required to stay on the land, build a home, and farm the land for five years. The offer attracted migrants from inside the country—and waves of more immigrants from Europe. For example, many people from Sweden, where land was extremely scarce, were drawn to come to the United States. These brave settlers worked hard to start a new life on the frontier. Though life was difficult, many succeeded. The Transcontinental Railroad was a massive construction project that linked the country by rail from east to west. The railway was built entirely by hand during a six-year period, with construction often continuing around the clock.

Chinese and Irish immigrants were vital to the project. In , Chinese immigrants made up about 80 percent of the workforce of the Central Pacific Railroad, one of the companies building the railway. The workers of the Union Pacific Railroad, another company that built the railroad, were mostly Irish immigrants. These railroad workers labored under dangerous conditions, often risking their lives. After the Transatlantic Railroad was completed, cities and towns sprung up all along its path, and immigrants moved to these new communities.

The Transcontinental Railroad was a radical improvement in travel in the United States; after its completion, the trip from East Coast to West Coast, which once took months, could be made in five days. By , America was booming. The image of America as a land of promise attracted people from all over the world. America was "the golden door," a metaphor for a prosperous society that welcomed immigrants.

Asian immigrants, however, didn't have the same experience as European immigrants. They were the focus of one of the first major pieces of legislation on immigration. The Chinese Exclusion Act of severely restricted immigration from China. She oscillates between duty and desire, denial and fulfilment. She is presented as a free spirit struggling for recognition and self-respect in the face of rejection by a class-ridden and moneyoriented society. This explains why she finally leaves Mr Rochester. Charlotte felt deeply about the oppressed status of women at the time, especially women endowed with intelligence but devoid of fortune or looks, like herself.

The text develops the theme of spiritual equality regardless of social rank; though not a new theme, it is asserted with an unusual force in this novel, leading some readers to see Jane and her creator in feminist terms and as opposed to the strict Victorian social class system. At the beginning Jane is a lonely, dependent orphan girl, but she battles the constraints of her harsh upbringing and becomes educated, not only intellectually, but also socially and spiritually.

She develops into a strong, confident and independent woman, who neither has to give up her spiritual beliefs nor her human desire for love to be genuinely happy. She becomes the epitome of the modern woman, as she manages a perfect balance between the spiritual and the physical, which is what she really wanted in life. So there was increasing pessimism and concern that social problems were growing, not being solved. Great social changes had taken place for middle- and working-class men, and the position of women was being debated. Hardy reflects all this.

However, he wrote about agricultural labourers and rural life at a time when most people lived in towns and their lives were dominated by factories and commerce - Hardy emphasises the rural calendar and the changing seasons, which had been forgotten in urban life. In this way, he confronts the social dilemmas that Victorian society had created with the timeless tragedy of human existence. He used the omniscient narrator, which was a typical feature of the Victorian novel, to expose Victorian hypocrisy and to present a view deprived of the consolation of faith. These two aspects of beauty are closely interwoven in his poetry: the former, which is the expression of the latter, is linked to life, enjoyment, decay and death; the latter is related to eternity.

Thus an artist can die but his work of art lives forever and can communicate his feelings and its sense of beauty to men. Moreover, Keats identified beauty and truth as the only true types of knowledge. According to Oscar Wilde, the value of any work of art lies in its beauty, and not in the message that the artist wants to convey. The artist writes only to please himself since he is not interested in communicating his feelings and thoughts to his fellow-beings. He kills himself in stabbing the portrait because the portrait symbolises the dark side of his own soul. They belong to the semantic area of mystery. In fact it is art that wins at the end of the book, since Dorian Gray dies and the picture recovers all its past perfection. He seems to be seen through an oval lock; he is out of focus.

Suggestion: Throughout the novel Dorian shows a twofold attitude towards the picture. Sometimes he sees it as a reflection of his own soul as in the film sequence , and sometimes he sees it as endowed with an autonomous life as in the text from the last chapter of the novel. During his life he came in touch with the leading literary and philosophical minds of his day: Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau and Herman Melville. The philosophy of Transcendentalism encouraged man to transcend the materialistic world of experience and facts through reflection and intuition in order to discover and become aware of eternal truths in the natural world. First, he was a skilled novelist with an impressive talent for form. He was deeply concerned with the concepts of original sin and guilt and the claims of law and conscience.

There was widespread mourning and grief across the country, and Whitman, who was a great admirer of Lincoln, wrote this poem. The poet thought that Lincoln embodied the American virtues of honesty and courage, and his death inspired a simple, three-stanza poem of sorrow that little resembled his other, more experimental writings. O Captain! There is no rhyme scheme. The poet breaks away from the conventions of poetry and anticipates modern experimentation.

The poem is characterised by the lack of punctuation and the use of dashes. In this way Dickinson creates suspense, emphasises certain words and forces the reader to pause and reconsider. As a result the emotion expressed in the poem is highlighted. Dickinson uses personification; she modifies the traditional frightening image of death and turns it into the figure of a gentleman who takes his lady for a ride in his carriage. The idea of the last journey is connected with the concept of another life in eternity. At the same time it is contrasted with the idea that life on earth will continue around us even after our departure.

Disillusioned and cynical mood due to the loss of many lives; frantic search for pleasure; sense of guilt for the horrors of trench warfare; loss of purpose; widening of the gap between the generation of the young and the older one, regarded as responsible for the terrible waste of lives during the war; increasing rootlessness and frustration, due to the slow dissolution of the Empire into the Commonwealth, led to a transformation of the notions of imperial hegemony and white superiority.

The traditional features subverted by Modernist writers were the limitations inbv space and time, the linear flow of narrative or conventional verse, the objectivity provided by an omniscient third-person narrator. Absorbing the influences of the past and contemporary ascendancy coming from abroad, in the attempt to build a new system of references, English modern literature was becoming cosmopolitan, thus moving away from the upper-middle-class milieu of Victorian society. In free verse the traditional metre and rhyme scheme are absent. Its only unifying element is the use of the poetic line. The free verse line might consist of a complete sentence or of a single word, whose relation to the syntactic structure of preceding and succeeding lines is flexible.

Alliteration and assonance compensate for the absence of the other traditional musical devices. The new manners were a reaction against the strict Puritan morality of the previous century. They were especially evident among young people, with their roaring cars and the new daring dances like the Charleston. In spite of Prohibition, parties and cocktails became fashionable and women began to wear their hair and dresses short, looking boyish. They were aware of the moral desert hiding behind the glamour of the Jazz Age and they attacked its superficial hedonism. With the exception of a few traditionalists, American poets wrote in free verse, abandoning conventional verse forms, experimenting with syntax, punctuation and typography.

Afro-American literature found its fullest expression in Harlem Renaissance, a movement which concerned the literary and artistic fields as well as the cultural and intellectual ones. This movement raised important issues affecting the lives of African Americans; its writers exalted their heritage and tried to use their unique culture as a means to redefine African American literary expression.

Afro-American writers had to face the problem of self-definition through a new evaluation of their past, relying in particular on the rich folk tradition - oral culture, black dialect, jazz and blues composition - to create unique literary forms. Much of the literature of the period was characterised by a resentful and bitter pessimism, a new social consciousness, a feeling of political responsibility and a deeper interest in psychology. He views England as a mother who gave him life and brought him up teaching him feelings of joy and gentleness. The poem deals with patriotic ideas and the idealisation of those who sacrifice their life for their country. Death in battle is not regarded as a tragic experience but as a noble act. It is clear that the poet despised him.

The poet wanted to celebrate the sacrifice of these heroes and at the same time to reflect on the contradictions of political commitment and nationalism. His poem wanted to immortalise these figures and make them part of the Irish heritage, which all the Irish people could share. The poem starts with the image of a falcon wheeling about in the sky, far away from the falconer who released it. Another possible interpretation is that the falcon stands for the intellect and the falconer for the body sensations and feelings heart. Here his vision ends, and Yeats starts thinking again. This poem is a riddle and ends with a question. Throughout the poem there are hints as to what the answer to the riddle is, but Yeats does not come right out with the answer and leaves the question open.

The poem is an apocalyptic vision of the future of mankind. A second theme is that of paganism as opposed to Christianity. Yeats had come to view Christianity as weak and its innocence as idealistic and impractical in the real world line 6 , where the Spiritus Mundi can promise satisfaction and earthly fulfilment. The idea of the power of the new order is amplified by the size of the sphinx. This suggests the power of the process which integrates the human intellect with the animal power of the bodily intelligence of the beast. This idea challenges the conventional Christian idea that Christ overcomes the Beast of Revelation. Suggestion: Thomas Stearns Eliot was educated at Harvard.

In the s Eliot spent some time in a Swiss sanatorium, in Lausanne, undergoing psychological treatment and here he finished his masterpiece The Waste Land Poetry became his refuge where he expressed all his horror at his unhappy home life. His religious poetry blossomed in Ash Wednesday , a purgatorial poem, and then in Four Quartets The works of the first period are characterised by a pessimistic vision of the world, without any hope, faith, ideals or values.

They depict a nightmarish land where spiritual aridity and lack of love have deprived life of all meaning. Purification, hope and joy are the key words of the works of the second period: the poetry of Journey of the Magi , Ash Wednesday , Four Quartets and two important plays, Murder in the Cathedral , on the assassination of Thomas Becket, and The Family Reunion , on the guilt and expiation of a man haunted by the Furies. Both Eliot and Picasso revolutionised their art and developed new ways of communication. The Waste Land is one of the highest expressions of modernism in literature.

The journeying motif runs through the whole poem: the speaker moves around London encountering images of waste and decay, but he cannot find the redemptive shrine. It is a parody of the symbolic Tomb of the Unknown Soldier commemorating unidentified soldiers; tombs of unknown soldiers were first created following the First World War. He was an ordinary man, he worked, had a family, served his country. He participated in society, was orthodox in his views, never rebelled against authority and bought material goods.

The couplet in the last two lines sums up the argument of the whole poem. Through the anonymity of the citizen and the names referring to the institutions, Auden conveys a satirical description of life in the consumer society. It is a materialistic, technological society in an urban environment, where there is no place for imagination, feelings and spiritual depth. In such a context life is seen as a question of statistics rather than individual happiness.

He acts as a public, committed voice against the danger of totalitarianism. He speculates about citizenship and how the State controls man. Suggestion: Students should mention the complexity of form, the range of subjects, particularly the concern with the themes of citizenship and alienation within modern society, and his verbal energy. The music accompanies the zooming camera, adding to the mysterious atmosphere that characterises the whole sequence. At the beginning Aziz is furiously angry and shouts at the woman lines ; Mrs Moore gasps and is startled lines 42, Then Aziz is sorry line 48 , afraid he has startled her line 64 ; they both laugh line 79 and he is delighted line They talk about their similar family situation, they share the same opinions; he is excited line ; they sympathise lines ; she is surprised line ; he is happy lines Though Mrs Moore is British, she behaves differently from the other members of her community: she talks to Aziz and tells him about her family, she criticises other members of her community, she is kind and invites Aziz to the club, she shows respect for his religion.

Aziz shows resentment towards the English because of the way they treat the Indians, and despises their cool attitude. He also feels different from the Hindus, for example he finds their religion and music uncongenial. Aziz appears as a sensitive and talkative young man with a slight inclination to melancholy and pathos see the inscription in lines and a deep sense of beauty. Mrs Moore is gentle and spontaneous, she respects other cultures and is curious about them. Lines , , , They are both seeking to escape from an alien environment and looking for relief in a holy place. They are friendly and sympathetic. They both would like to understand the meaning of their behaviour.

A Passage to India explores the possibility for Western and Eastern cultures to get in touch and, more generally, for human beings to connect and understand one another. Both Mrs Moore and Dr Aziz try to connect and wish to overcome social, cultural and racial differences lines , The English considered themselves superior and behaved with arrogance, excluding the Indians from their own territories and violating their rights. The passage hints at the contrast between Hindus and Muslims inside the Indian reality.

Forster had a critical view of imperialistic policies of discrimination under which personal relations were spoilt; he also represented the development of an Indian national consciousness through the character of Aziz. At first there is her plan of escape, which coexists with her antithetical wish of continuing to live in her home; then there is the gradual failure of her project to escape and paralysis wins inside her soul in the end.

Probably she is too young to take any decision. Students should point out that while in Chaucer April means renewal and rebirth, in Eliot and Orwell it acquires a negative connotation since it is linked to the ideas of aridity and alienation. The third-person narrator is not part of the story but in the minds of the characters like an all-seeing eye or an omniscient presence overlooking the proceedings. Lack of knowledge can be a very scary thing; if you do not know what something is, then you do not have the possibility of facing it.

On the other hand, they symbolise depravity. Throughout history, humans have associated rats with squalor and pestilence. Rats carry disease and thrive on human garbage. If people allow forces such as those represented by Big Brother to rule, then they will become no better than mindless, multiplying rats. Winston, facing a writhing swarm of rats prepared to devour his face, cannot act rationally. His betrayal of Julia occurs precisely because physical pain eliminates the possibility of defending emotional conviction.

Turning against Julia is an instinctive act of self-preservation. Rather than the rats themselves, it is the awareness, forced upon him by the Party, that he is a prisoner of his own body that ultimately breaks Winston. Once he believes that he is limited by his body, he has no reason to think, act, or rebel. The climax is in lines When he spoke it was in the schoolmasterish manner that he sometimes affected. Within quite a small time they will strip it to the bones. They also attack sick or dying people. Sometimes they attack the eyes first. The room teaches Winston that when faced with his greatest fear, he would be willing to sacrifice anything - love, dignity, loyalty - in order to escape it. Julia is the only person in the world whom Winston could have thrust between himself and the rats because she is the only person standing between him and his love of Big Brother.

As long as Winston loved Julia, and what she represented to him, he was able to believe in himself and his humanity enough to hate Big Brother. Once he betrays that love, he violates his own humanity and can no longer love another human. Suggestion: Students might refer to the danger lying in the acceptance of a totalitarian outlook by intellectuals of all colours. In the background there is also the threat of a total war with new weapons, of which the atomic bomb is the most powerful. The people act as if they were at an amusement park and lounge here and there sometimes without even meeting the host. There are buffets with plenty of good food to eat, alcohol to drink and an orchestra playing jazz. Guests who have met before do not even remember each other, and impersonality is the dominant attitude.

There is laughter without amusement, enthusiasm between strangers. On the other hand, they bring to light the moral sterility, superficial hedonism and contradictions which also marked the Jazz Age and were especially evident among young people. Steinbeck devotes many lines to the description of the setting, and presents his characters from the outside rather than providing psychological insights, so that he creates types rather than individuals. The overall effect of this text is a documentary rendering of a crucial historical event and the suffering it implied.

He denounces the historical, social and economic circumstances which separate people into rich and poor, landowners and tenants - where the people in the dominant roles struggle viciously to preserve their positions. In the text shown, the local town is willing to spend money on extra deputies to enforce the law but not on food to relieve the starving families of the migrants. Steinbeck shows vividly how the California landowners treat the migrants like animals. They are shuffled from one filthy roadside camp to the next, denied liveable wages, and forced to turn against fellow humans simply to survive. In this context the family and the idea of brotherhood have a saving power - it is not genetics but loyalty and commitment to one another that establishes true kinship.

The British Empire covered a fifth of the total land of the globe, British towns were the wealthiest in Europe and British ships carried 80 per cent of world trade. This event triggered a series of reactions:. The economic boom, however, had not prevented the spread of poverty. In the industrial areas of the North - like the metropolises of Chicago, Pittsburgh, New York and Boston - workers lived in dirty, overcrowded slums, and toiled long hours for low wages.

Their reports shocked most Americans, who started to think that the government should take action to eliminate the problems of society through reform. In the s the economy continued to grow, though large areas like the south-western mining towns, the farmers of the Midwest and the urban industrial workers remained untouched by the new wealth. Political activists with radical or labour backgrounds were imprisoned and persecuted. In the American stock market collapsed. The Wall Street Crash marked the beginning of a worldwide economic crisis known as the Great Depression. Thousands of businessmen were ruined, and millions of common people found themselves facing debt and ruin. Factories shut down, banks crashed and nearly 8 million Americans were unemployed in the s.

In that period the Great Plains region was devastated by drought and the consequent Dust Bowl conditions forced 60 per cent of the farmers to migrate to California. The Wall Street Clash in marked the end of the prosperous Twenties and the beginning of a worldwide economic crisis. Thousands of businessmen were ruined, and millions of common people who had invested their savings in shares found themselves facing debt and ruin. Factories shut down, banks crashed, goods were produced but no longer sold. In that period the Great Plains region was devastated by drought. The winds easily picked up the dry earth and created thick dust clouds which choked cattle and pasture lands. They arrived here to escape religious persecution. Less than half of the first Pilgrim families that landed at Plymouth Rock survived the first winter on American soil due to disease and starvation.

Fewer than of the roughly Jamestown colonists survived the first three years on American soil. Until both groups of displaced city dwellers learned from the Indians to grow corn and other crops, starvation was a recurring problem. They did manage to take advantage of the seemingly endless supply of forest trees to build their dwellings. The Jamestown colonists initially set up secular governing bodies with governors appointed on behalf of the King of England. The Pilgrims also separated functions of church and state. They appointed governors to run the court system, with representatives from each town serving as his assistants.

Ministers were chosen to lead the Plymouth Church. The majority of colonists provided for their families through farming.

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