Critical Analysis Of Animal Farm

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Critical Analysis Of Animal Farm

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Critical Analysis of Animal Farm by George Orwell - British Literature - MA/BA - #englishliterature

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In conclusion, it seems as though the testing was for no direct purpose. The monkeys were subjected to years of suffering from shock conditioning, were rewarded with sublethal doses of Soman, and the results will hardly ever be consulted by someone who can use them for a practical purpose. Singer displays many other experiments throughout this chapter that have similar avail, or lack thereof. Often times, experiments are repeated to see if scientists get the same results as previous scientists. An example of this is Martin Reite of the University of Colorado, who conducted deprivation experiments on bonnet monkeys and pigtailed macaques.

He was aware of Jane Goodall's observations of orphaned wild chimpanzees in which she described many behavioral disturbances, along with sadness and depression. However, " The isolated infants screamed, rocked, and threw themselves at the walls of the chamber. Reite concluded that 'isolation in infant chimpanzees may be accompanied by marked behavioral changes" Like many other experiments, the conclusion of that experiment was that of the conclusive evidence posed by an earlier scientist. Also, like in most experiments, more research was needed.

A similar experimenter, Harry Harlow, conducted maternal deprivation experiments which subjected over seven thousand animals to procedures that induced distress, depression, anxiety, general psychological devastation, and death. Like Reite, Harlow dismissed the question of why he was performing these experiments. That we already have extensive observations of orphaned chimpanzees in the wild seems not to have been of interest to them" These experiments and similar research has all been paid by taxpayers " Often times, when the proper research is done and exposed, the general populace will find that they are directly funding the suffering of other animals. If Singer was correct in his first chapter, this means that we are directly impeding on the animal's right to life.

Research methods like these are used for military, psychological, and higher educational experimentation. All kinds of animals are used for these experiments: monkeys, rats, dogs, cats, fish, rabbits, and other such animals. Often times, the experimenters state that their work is for the benefit of humans even when the experiments conducted end up showing no correlation or relation to humans at all. So, there is a dilemma which exists for experimenters, " In most cases, one will find that the experiments conducted would be considered far too cruel to be tested on humans, such as LD50 toxicity tests.

LD50 stands for lethal dose 50 percent: "the amount of the substance that will kill up to half of the animals in the study. To find the dose level, sample groups of animals are poisoned. Normally, before the point at which half of them die is reached, the animals are all very ill and in obvious distress" Testing for cosmetics and other substances are often times used in animals' eyes. An example of this are Draize eye irritancy tests , in which an irritating substance is placed in a rabbit's eyes. The eye is then held closed. Sometimes the application is repeated" The tests subjects are then observed for any form of eye swelling, ulceration, infection, and bleeding. Studies such as these can last up to weeks.

Department of Agriculture USDA showed that an upwards of 80, experiments such as these were performed on rabbits. However, it should be noted that the last quoted dates of these testings were in the mid to late s and that significant changes may have occurred since then. Such changes can be attributed to animal activists and modern technology. Spira and similar activists have created a great push toward the ceasing of all animal testing for consumer product safety for many cosmetic companies.

Along with these strong animal activists has come an increase in alternative methods for toxicity testing, such as cell and tissue culture and computer modeling. Both seen as more desirable both economically and scientifically. Activism of this kind has spread across the globe and is opening the minds of researchers. Many scientists have found the tests fail to show that certain chemicals that are fine for animals end up causing cancer in humans, such as arsenic. Thus, a new movement in medicine should and possibly has begun; one that will begin to eliminate the testing on animals. This movement is called the health movement, and it emphasizes healthy living rather than a cure from medicine.

While there is still much need for cures to our most deadly diseases, it should be noted that the movement and the opening of minds has begun, at least in the field of medical testing using animals as tools for research. In most activist movements, it is the initiation of the movement which starts the snowball effect, leading to improved systems and rights many years down the road. Chapter two shows that there are many horrors when it comes to animal testing, but that the elimination process has started. In chapter three, Singer turns to a different form of suffering. One that the general public again directly funds. This time, they may not be so willing to change. Chapter three of Singer's Animal Liberation is all about how animals are massively produced on factory farms for human consumption.

It relates how many people do not see the connection between the food they eat on their plate and the animal which was slaughtered in order to have such food. Not only do people not connect their food to the animals killed in order to obtain the food, people are also ignorant as to the lives the animals live up until the time they are killed. It is the large food producing corporations which have blinded us from the horrors that happen down on the factory farm. This chapter intends to lift the veil. The main animals discussed in this chapter are chickens, cows, and pigs; chickens being used for egg production and meat, and cows being used for dairy and meat.

To begin, and keeping in mind that what follows is information given during the s, " Broiler chickens are typically killed weeks after they are hatched, when their natural life span can be up to seven years. However, since it is not Singer's main argument to relate the killing of animals, let us narrow our focus to the suffering these animals experience up until the time of the killing. In order to gain the best possible revenue for their farms, large corporations or agribusinesses have finely tuned their chicken production to what seems like a science.

In order to house the most chickens per square feet, it is not uncommon for agribusiness to stuff two or sometimes three five-pound chickens into one cage. The cages are made of wire meshing and are usually a bit smaller than a standard sheet of computer paper. But why should someone care about such a thing? How do we know chickens are among the sentient beings we discussed who have interests just as humans do? How do we know they are suffering? First, we should care because we know that chickens are intelligent animals that can feel pain.

Their intelligence is noted by what is called a "pecking order. However, while a "flock of up to ninety chickens can maintain a stable social order, each bird knowing its place; 80, birds crowded together in a single shed is obviously a different matter" When chickens are forced to be in the midst of so many other chickens, we are forcing them to act out of their nature.

They cannot establish what is natural for them, and, as we have seen, if we are limiting a sentient being's nature, then we are making that being suffer. Another notable account that displays the suffering of the chickens is the "vices" which develop when chickens are forced to be in dimly lit, tight quarters. Vices are something like bad habits and are developed in animals when the animal is severely stressed or taken out of its natural setting.

The vices of chickens tend to be shows of cannibalism and cruelty to other chickens. Birds become bored and peck at some outstanding part of another bird's plumage" In order to prevent the animal vices which the farmers have directly helped instigate, the farms develop even crueler methods of their own. One way to stop a chicken from pecking another chicken is to have the chicken debeaked. The procedure is carried out very quickly, about fifteen birds a minute" The debeaking process is not a painless one.

A hot blade causes blisters in the mouth of the chicken and a cold blade could cause a fleshy, bulblike growth on the end of the mandible. Furthermore, the beak is not without nerve endings. This pain is long term for the chicken, often making the chickens eat less and lose weight over several weeks. All of this suffering occurs because agribusiness is trying to make the most money possible while producing the most chickens possible.

The only painless way to stop chickens from creating vices is to minimize the amount of chickens in a given space. When chickens are more free to roam, they tend to practice the things they are instinctively created to do: dust bathes, scratch at the dirt, flap their wings, and create nests. The only real way to ensure that chickens are given this freedom, this cessation from suffering, is to stop buying chickens. When the populace stops buying so many chickens for their own greedy consumption, then agribusiness will have no need to produce as many chickens.

It is as simple as this. The general populace is directly funding and causing the suffering of chickens. As Singer relates, this is occurring to many other animals as well. One of the smartest animals on the farm is the pig. The pig is actually known to be smarter than a dog; a dog being more intelligent than a young child. Like any animal with locomotive capabilities, pigs like to move around. Unfortunately, "Pigs in modern factory farms have nothing to do but eat, sleep, stand up, and lie down" Like chickens, when pigs are confined in dimly lit, tight quarters, they too develop vices.

The pig's vices are biting each other's tails. In order to prevent this biting, farmers cut off the pig's tails. The USDA has some simple guidelines for such a process, "Tail docking has become a common practice to prevent tail biting of pigs in confinement. It should be done by all producers of feeder pigs" Like chickens there is a more humane solution to the vices of pigs. The obvious way is to give the pigs more room to move and roll around. However, another method farmers could establish are to provide the pigs with a variety of stimulating devices.

Stress indicates a form of suffering. Inhumane treatment causes suffering. Let the case be made that the mass production of pigs for our pork causes many animals to suffer. Finally let us turn our attention to the production of beef; in this case further refined to veal. Veal is the flesh of a young calf. The flesh is paler than an older cow and more tender since the calf has not yet begun to eat grass.

Since agribusiness receives the most money for veal products, it is in the farmer's interest to have the heaviest calf, while still ensuring that its flesh is considered veal. The trick depends on keeping the calf in highly unnatural conditions" The unnatural conditions are necessary to ensure that the calf does not eat grass, procure any source of iron rich foods, or move around so as not to gain muscle. Since veal is supposed to be a tender meat, muscles would ruin the texture.

Also, a way to grade veal is by how pale the flesh tends to be. Iron darkens the flesh, so the calf is fed iron depleted foods. In order to ensure that the calves cannot move around, they are housed in a stall, " The calves are tethered by a chain around the neck to prevent them from turning in their stalls The calves are not given hay to lay on in fear that they will eat it and darken their flesh.

Their cages are stripped of metal which may rust and provide the veal with the iron it craves. Because of this, the calves are seen licking the floor panels, which they defecate on, in order to try to nourish their bodies with the iron they need. This is how the calves live for up to sixteen weeks. These horrors and many others are shown to us in chapter three. We find that over and over again animals are made to suffer for the greedy taste sensations humans desire. Aside from the gruesome tales that occur on the factory farms, the animals eventually end up at slaughter houses in which they bear no better fate.

The animals are made to suffer long trips without food to the slaughter houses. Upon entering the slaughter houses, there is an attempt to knock or shock the animals unconscious for the preparation of the killing of the animal. This does not always occur, and oftentimes animals are fully conscious for their own bleeding out. Those animals that are not killed right away are hung up on conveyer belts by their hind legs. This is an awfully painful experience if you are a cow and your leg cannot support the weight of your body. Typically this results in dislocated limbs, severe panic, and in general a horrible end to life through suffering. By the end of the chapter, we have been given all of the facts. All that the animals can hope for now is that people open their minds to the cruelty and suffering that happens down on the factory farm and to stop eating the flesh of other sentient beings.

If no one eats meat anymore, agribusiness will have no need to massively produce the animals. Chapter four is about becoming a vegetarian and producing less suffering and more food at the reduced cost to the environment. The obvious reason for becoming a vegetarian is that it will help to eliminate the suffering of animals raised on factory farms. However, Singer presents many other good reasons for become a vegetarian. One reason why becoming a vegetarian is a step in a positive direction is because it is good for the overall environment and population of the world. Unfortunately, calves no longer graze in pastures and are made to stand in stalls and be fed whatever concoction the farmers brew up for them.

These food stuffs that are fed to the cattle are foods that humans typically eat: corn, sorghum, soybeans, wheat, and sometimes fellow animals. This is an inefficient means of obtaining protein. For example, take an acre of fertile land that can be used to grow high protein foods such as peas or beans. If we were to do this, we would get between three hundred and five hundred pounds of protein per acre. If, say, we were to use this land to feed animals such as cows or pigs, and then we killed the animals for protein, we would only be gaining about forty to fifty-five pounds of protein per acre.

Clearly farming animals for protein is an inefficient means of production. By allowing agribusinesses to partake in these methods of farming, we are allowing them to waste the diminishing and valuable fertile land that can be used for high protein yielding foods. To further the argument that the massive production of animals is hurting the environment and the population of the world, we should look and see why much of the great rain forests of Earth are being destroyed. While almost 90 percent of the Earth's plant and animal species live in tropical forests, " The clearing of the forests pushes animals to extinction, hurts the oxygen and ozone layers of the Earth causing the greenhouse effect and an increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, causes erosion, creates flooding, and hurts the indigenous populations that live in or near the forests.

The end of the chapter pleads and implores people to become vegetarians. Aside from the destruction to Earth and the ridiculously moronic systems of obtaining protein, eating meat and dairy products is also a detriment to human health. The rest of the chapter gives guidelines as to how to become and sustain being a vegetarian. Vegetarianism is a healthier lifestyle for those who chose it. It also promotes the end of suffering to farm animals.

As a physically, mentally, and morally better way of life, Singer asks that people reconsider their greedy and self indulgent life styles and consider procuring a better future for the own personal body as well as for the body of Earth and all its inhabitants. In chapter six, Singer defends his argument against the many speciesists who still want to assert that their self-indulgent life styles are adequate ways of living. Singer notes that most of our ideas about farm animals and where our food comes from are given to us through mainstream media. The media averts our attention away from the cruelties that occur on the farm and makes us believe that our chickens like their life styles and that cows and horses and pigs all live together on a wide open farm as one big happy family.

To those who do become aware of what is happening, either they take a stand and change up their lifestyle, or they play the role of ignorance and prefer not to be concerned about the suffering of other sentient beings. As our minds our warped to believe that animals are nonsocial, nonintelligent, and nonfeeling beings, we begin to accept much of what is happening in the world around us. We rely on animal activists to picket for us.

We go on believing that certain animals are cruel, such as the wolf, when in reality it is the human!

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