Working Conditions In Upton Sinclairs The Jungle

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Working Conditions In Upton Sinclairs The Jungle



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The Jungle by Upton Sinclair - Chapter 5

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March 17, The Coal War. Douglas September 1, Atlantis Rising LLC. The Literary Digest — via sfmuseum. Bread Upon The Waters — via pitzer. Janaway Publishing. Journal of American Studies. ISSN S2CID The New York Times , Dec. Archived from the original on October 17, Atlantic Monthly Press. Robert A. New York: Tor Books, ; pp. Retrieved September 5, The American Prospect.

Retrieved September 7, Spartacus Educational. Archived from the original on December 31, October 26, Deseret News. October 15, Retrieved December 2, August 2, The News Journal. Wilmington, DE, US. September 1, The Broadkill Review. Harry Kemp, the last Bohemian. Upton Sinclair, Author's Wife, Dies". The Bridgeport Post. Bridgeport, Connecticut. December 20, Retrieved May 17, — via Newspapers. Archived from the original on May 27, Retrieved June 5, PBS Newshour. May 10, Retrieved June 10, — via PBS. Harold]], Bloom ed. The Jungle ed. Infobase Publishing. Behold This Dreamer! Boston: Little, Brown. Southern Belle. In Lloyd, James B.

Lives of Mississippi Authors, — Retrieved November 9, — via Google Books. Retrieved December 20, How Upton Sinclair's run for governor of California inspired a cult". Lapham's Quarterly. Retrieved May 15, The New Yorker. Retrieved January 21, Who's Who of Pulitzer Prize Winners. Phoenix: Oryx Press. Retrieved November 29, The Fasting Cure. Digitized by Harvard University. New York: Mitchell Kennerly. The Desert Sun.

United Press International. September 13, The Village Voice 14 February Retrieved November 17, Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved February 4, New York: Weekly Masses Co. Arthur, Anthony Radical Innocent Upton Sinclair. New York: Random House. Arthur, Anthony. Critics on Upton Sinclair; readings in literary criticism online Bloodworth, Jr. Twayne, online. Berkeley, CA: Heyday Books, Coodley, Lauren. Cook, Timothy.

Upton Sinclair; a study in social protest online Duvall, J. Gottesman, Ronald. Upton Sinclair: An Annotated Checklist. Kent State University Press, Harris, Leon. Upton Sinclair, American Rebel. Crowell Co, Leader, Leonard. Mattson, Kevin. Upton Sinclair and the Other American Century. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, Mookerjee, R. Art for social justice : the major novels of Upton Sinclair online Pickavance, Jason. Piep, Karsten H. Praeger, We do not want you to waste previous hours reading whole chapters only to discover that your recording is unusable due to a preventable technical glitch.

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Apologies for the inconvenience. Jump to: navigation , search. Personal tools Log in. By the early s, four major meat-packing corporations had bought out the many small slaughterhouse companies throughout the United States. Because they were so large, the Armour, Swift, Morris, and National Packing companies could dictate prices to cattle ranchers, feed growers, and consumers. The Big Four meat-packing companies centralized their operations in a few cities. Largest of all was the meat-packing industry in Chicago. It spread through acres of stockyards, feed lots, slaughterhouses, and meat-processing plants.

Together with the nearby housing area where the workers lived, this part of Chicago was known as Packingtown. Long before Henry Ford adapted it to automobile production, meat packers had developed the first industrial assembly line. It was more accurately a "disassembly line," requiring nearly 80 separate jobs from the killing of an animal to processing its meat for sale. The organs, bones, fat, and other scraps ended up as lard, soap, and fertilizer. The workers said that the meat-packing companies "used everything but the squeal. Unskilled immigrant men did the backbreaking and often dangerous work, laboring in dark and unventilated rooms, hot in summer and unheated in winter.

Many stood all day on floors covered with blood, meat scraps, and foul water, wielding sledgehammers and knives. Women and children over 14 worked at meat trimming, sausage making, and canning. Most workers earned just pennies per hour and worked 10 hours per day, six days a week. A few skilled workers, however, made as much as 50 cents an hour as "pacesetters," who sped up the assembly line to maximize production. The use of pacesetters caused great discontent among the workers. By , most of Chicago's packing-house workers were recent immigrants from Poland, Slovakia, and Lithuania. They crowded into tenement apartments and rented rooms in Packingtown, next to the stinking stockyards and four city dumps.

Real estate agents sold some immigrants small houses on credit, knowing that few would be able to keep up with the payments due to job layoffs, pay cuts, or disabling injuries. When an immigrant fell behind in payments, the mortgage holder would foreclose, repaint, and sell the house to another immigrant family. Born in Baltimore in , Upton Sinclair came from an old Virginia family. The Civil War had wiped out the family's wealth and land holdings. Sinclair's father became a traveling liquor salesman and alcoholic.

The future author's mother wanted him to become a minister. At age 5, he wrote his first story. It told about a pig that ate a pin, which ended up in a family's sausage. When he was 10, Sinclair's family moved to New York City where he went to school and college. While attending Columbia University, he began to sell stories to magazines. He specialized in western, adventure, sports, and war-hero fiction for working-class readers. Sinclair graduated from Columbia in , and three years later he married Meta Fuller. They had one child. Sinclair began to write novels but had difficulty getting them published. As he was struggling to make a living as a writer, he began reading about socialism.

He came to believe in the idea of a peaceful revolution in which Americans would vote for the government to take over the ownership of big businesses. He joined the Socialist Party in , and a year later he began to write for Appeal to Reason , a socialist magazine. In , the meat-packer's union in Chicago went on strike, demanding better wages and working conditions.

The Big Four companies broke the strike and the union by bringing in strikebreakers, replacements for those on strike. The new workers kept the assembly lines running while the strikers and their families fell into poverty. The editor of Appeal to Reason suggested that Sinclair write a novel about the strike. Sinclair, at age 26, went to Chicago at the end of to research the strike and the conditions suffered by the meat-packing workers. He interviewed them, their families, lawyers, doctors, and social workers. He personally observed the appalling conditions inside the meat-packing plants. The Jungle is Sinclair's fictionalized account of Chicago's Packingtown. The title reflects his view of the brutality he saw in the meat-packing business.

The story centered on a young man, Jurgis Rudkis, who had recently immigrated to Chicago with a group of relatives and friends from Lithuania. Full of hope for a better life, Jurgis married and bought a house on credit. Jurgis soon learned how the company sped up the assembly line to squeeze more work out of the men for the same pay. He discovered the company cheated workers by not paying them anything for working part of an hour. Jurgis saw men in the pickling room with skin diseases.

Men who used knives on the sped-up assembly lines frequently lost fingers. Men who hauled pound hunks of meat crippled their backs. Workers with tuberculosis coughed constantly and spit blood on the floor. Right next to where the meat was processed, workers used primitive toilets with no soap and water to clean their hands. In some areas, no toilets existed, and workers had to urinate in a corner. Lunchrooms were rare, and workers ate where they worked. Almost as an afterthought, Sinclair included a chapter on how diseased, rotten, and contaminated meat products were processed, doctored by chemicals, and mislabeled for sale to the public.

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