Climatic Characterization Of Hamlet

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The Tragedy of Hamlet - A Complete Analysis (Shakespeare's Works Explained)

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Currently, the Arctic atmosphere is characterized by low concentrations of aerosol particles in the summer Willis et al. This work is a contribution to the YOPP, as the measurement of aerosol properties in the Canadian Arctic provides a baseline for future predictions of aerosol particle concentration and composition in this region. Tuktoyaktuk, NT, Canada The hamlet has a population of and is accessible primarily via Inuvik—Tuktoyaktuk Highway an unpaved, gravel road or the local airport Fig.

Map source: Toporama Natural Resources Canada. Note the geographic assignment of locations shown in the inset map is approximate. Fine PM 2. Briefly, air is drawn into the inlet of this assembly system by a vacuum pump, and large particles i. Due to a file-writing error during the study, the sample volume could not be determined, and only the absolute mass collected on the filters is provided. We acknowledge this is a limitation of our study; however, the chemical composition of these samples remains of interest, as it is relevant to our understanding of the atmospheric fate of aerosol particles, particularly during the Arctic summer in which existing measurements are scarce Chang et al.

This unit contains six channels that simultaneously measure aerosol particles binned by diameter with lower limits of 0. The instruments in this study were collocated and mounted approximately 3. Potential local sources of aerosol particles at the site may include dust e. For example, emissions from the ignition of lignite in the Smoking Hills and a migratory bird colony on Banks Island are possible sources of natural aerosol particles and gases, whereas emissions from the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field could be an anthropogenic source of aerosol particles and gases Fig.

This site was selected for this study to represent a northern coastal community that was undergoing increased human activities due to recent road access via the Trans-Canada Highway. Aerosol filter samples were extracted and analyzed for ions and metals Snider et al. Before extraction, a ceramic blade was used to cut filters in half. Water-soluble ions were separated by a Dionex ICS ion chromatograph and analyzed by conductivity detection.

Further details related to the extraction and analysis of filters can be found elsewhere Snider et al. Field blanks were used to investigate contamination introduced during the sampling and transport of filters in this study. Field blanks in this study were filters that were transported to the field site but were not deployed and were returned to the laboratory for analysis concurrently with samples. Procedural blanks were used to investigate contamination introduced during extraction. These blanks consisted of the same analytical reagents used to extract filter samples but without the aerosol filter matrix. Due to the brief sampling period in this study i. We fully acknowledge that this practice introduces uncertainty into the quantitative assessment of ions in metals in aerosol particle filter samples and related analyses Sect.

However, all reported masses are above the instrument detection limit IDL. In addition, the chemical masses of ions and metals reported in this study were subjected to screening to account for their presence in procedural and field blanks United States Environmental Protection Agency, , pursuant to protocols implemented by the US Environmental Protection Agency EPA : 1 if the analyte is detected in all field and procedural blanks i. The reported mass of ions and metals in filter samples is not blank subtracted Supplement, Table S1.

Although the magnitude of chemical mass reported in this study may carry uncertainty, the intention of this dataset is to provide a first assessment of the summertime chemical composition of aerosol particles in a relatively underreported region of the Canadian Arctic. A mass reconstruction analysis was performed to estimate contributions by ions, metals, and particle-bound water to the total gravimetric mass, as described in the Supplement Table S2. Data from 27 August were not included in the calculation determining the average mass reconstruction profile for PM 2.

Discrepancies between the total gravimetric mass and measured chemical mass of aerosol filter samples could be attributed to untargeted species e. S1 and S2. Therefore, was used as an end point for air mass back trajectory analysis. Aerosol particle mass concentrations were estimated from measured aerosol particle number concentrations according to Eq. PM 2 and PM 10 mass concentrations were calculated as the sum of mass concentrations in 0. Meteorological data, including temperature, wind speed and direction, atmospheric pressure, and relative humidity, were retrieved from historical climate archives Environment and Climate Change Canada, for the Tuktoyaktuk airport during the study Fig. The fine PM 2. For instance, the masses range from 2.

Snider et al. For instance, comparable masses of PM 2. This is further supported by the mass distribution of fine and coarse aerosol particles measured by the particle counter, where the mass fraction of fine aerosol particles was occasionally higher than the mass fraction of coarse aerosol particles Fig. However, PM 10 masses in this study were always greater than PM 2. Figure 2 A summary of the gravimetric mass a, d and chemical mass of ions b, e and metals c, f in fine PM 2. It was expected that the size distribution of aerosol particles e. For example, it is possible that warmer temperatures on 26 July Fig. S3 may have enhanced local emissions of coarse aerosol particles through heating and convection, contributing to a high PM 10—2.

S5 , could have reduced atmospheric loads through the action of scavenging aerosol particles and gases. Interestingly, some metals were detected only in PM 2. For example, Ti was detected only in PM 2. Al and Fe were the metals measured in the highest quantities in aerosol filter samples Fig. The detection frequencies for water-soluble ions in aerosol filter samples were generally low and variable Fig. Similarly to metals, several water-soluble ions were detected only in select aerosol filter samples. Similarly to other Arctic regions Fig. In contrast, contributions from Ba and Sb to the total quantity of metals at Tuktoyaktuk were greater than in other Arctic regions, whereas Ti contributions from other Arctic regions were greater than those at Tuktoyaktuk Landsberger et al.

It is important to note that metal profiles in Landsberger et al. In addition, the studies compared in Fig. Ion composition profiles for aerosol filter samples at Tuktoyaktuk were notably different than in other Arctic regions Leaitch et al. Figure 3 Composition profiles of ions a and metals b in aerosol filter samples at Tuktoyaktuk and other Arctic regions.

Average composition profiles are shown for aerosol filter samples at Tuktoyaktuk. Only ions and metals that are equal to or greater than the detection limit in this study are included in this figure. Several elements in Landsberger et al. Data shown for Leaitch et al. High detection frequencies of Al in PM 2. This could suggest that in addition to local sources, the presence of Al in filter samples was attributable to mineral dust emissions and atmospheric transport from other, high-latitude regions within the Arctic Crocchianti et al.

For example, it is possible that aerosol filter samples on 18 and 26 July Fig. It is noteworthy that other metals characteristic of mineral dust, such as Fe and Ti, were detected less frequently in filter samples Table S1 , suggesting they had different sources. Other air mass trajectories originating from west and northwesterly directions i. S1 and S2 , and filter samples during these periods contained Ba, Ag, and Sb. However, local emissions from combustion and natural or anthropogenic dust e. Keene et al. While we are unable to confirm this source in our study, it is conceivable that biomass burning in northern Canada was a possible source of aerosol particles at Tuktoyaktuk e.

It is challenging to identify sources of ions and metals in aerosol filter samples, especially when they are emitted from various sources in the environment Jayarathne et al. For instance, it is likely that ions and metals originated from continental and marine sources in this study, pursuant to air mass back trajectory analysis during the study period Figs. One strategy that can be used to better constrain continental and marine sources is to compare known ratios of ions and metals in soils and seawater to those found in aerosol filter samples. This result further supports the hypothesis that Fe and Al could originate from mineral dust. For example, SO 4 2 - in PM 2. Another source of SO 4 2 - in PM 2. However, ammonia emissions in the Arctic have also been associated with natural sources, such as soil Wentworth et al.

Although the organic composition of aerosol filter samples was not characterized in this work, it is important to consider that organic acids Laskin et al. A mass reconstruction analysis was conducted to estimate contributions from ions and metals to the total gravimetric mass Bari and Kindzierski, The average mass reconstruction profile for PM 2. In contrast, the average mass reconstruction profile for PM 10—2. Figure 4 Average mass reconstruction profiles of fine and coarse aerosol filter samples at Tuktoyaktuk during July—September In addition to uncertainties associated with the unclassified inorganic fraction, a substantial fraction of mass on aerosol filter samples could not be identified.

For example, it is possible that other inorganic ions and metals, organic material, and black carbon were components of aerosol particles at Tuktoyaktuk, pursuant to the chemical composition of aerosol particles in other Arctic regions Kadko et al. Despite these uncertainties, our results indicate that there are substantial, uncharacterized chemical components that could not be identified in aerosol filter samples at Tuktoyaktuk. The summertime composition profiles at Tuktoyaktuk may provide insights into the future chemical composition of aerosol particles in the Arctic. Our analysis indicates that mineral dust, marine, and combustion sources are important during the Arctic summer, particularly in the absence of snow cover and sea ice coverage.

It is expected that emissions of these aerosol particles will increase as the Arctic responds to climate warming in the future. For example, it is expected that climate warming will enhance the melting of snowpacks and sea ice within the Arctic, promoting exposed landscapes and oceans and ship traffic Willis et al. Our analysis also indicates that there are significant, unknown components of aerosol filter samples during the summer of at Tuktoyaktuk, which may influence the chemical properties of aerosol particles and their role in the Arctic troposphere e. For example, the unidentified components e.

This highlights the importance of improving understanding of the chemical composition of aerosol particles in the Arctic. It is important to emphasize that these results provide only a snapshot of the aerosol particles at Tuktoyaktuk and their representativeness is unknown. The average number size distributions of particles larger than 0. Total aerosol particle number concentrations of particles larger than 0. These relatively low concentrations are consistent with other observations during the Arctic summer Willis et al. Aerosol particle mass concentrations for PM 2.

Although some measurements at Tuktoyaktuk are not directly comparable to those of other regions in Canada i. For instance, it is likely that Tuktoyaktuk is influenced by marine air masses to a greater extent than other sites listed in Table 1, which are generally located inland. It is interesting to note in Table 1 that relatively high aerosol particle mass concentrations were observed at Norman Wells despite its low population; however, this may be attributed to major crude oil and natural gas production in that region Canada Energy Sector, The difference in the magnitude of aerosol particle mass concentrations may also be related to differences in sampling techniques.

For example, one method used by the National Air Pollution Surveillance program to determine mass concentrations is filtration and beta attenuation Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, , whereas the method used here relies on aerosol particle number concentrations and estimations of aerosol particle density Eq. Despite these differences, these data indicate that aerosol particle concentrations were lower during the summer of at Tuktoyaktuk than in other regions in northern Canada. Average concentrations are denoted by red markers; median concentrations correspond to black lines within each box; and the lower and upper bounds of each box are the 25th and 75th percentiles, respectively.

A summary of the continuous aerosol particle mass concentrations during July—September , calculated from the particle counter, is presented in Figs. In general, the magnitude of mass concentrations remained within a similar range during July—September , although there were notable increases in mass concentrations during 28—30 July, 3—6 August, and 22—24 August Fig. For example, the average PM 10 concentration was 2. Although we are unable to confirm the source of aerosol particle emissions during these periods, it is conceivable that elevated mass concentrations could be attributed to local aerosol particle emissions from human activities at Tuktoyaktuk.

For instance, elevated PM 10 concentrations on 28 July may have been related to human activities that proceeded during the annual Land of the Pingos Musical Festival e. Similar human activities could also provide an explanation for elevated mass concentrations on 3—6 August, considering this period coincided with an extended civic holiday weekend. Aerosol particle mass concentrations did not exhibit notable diurnality during the study Fig.

To assess the impact of fine aerosol particle emissions on local air quality, the mass concentration of PM 2 at Tuktoyaktuk was compared to the Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standard. These mass concentrations were very low in Tuktoyaktuk compared to the national PM 2. The chemical composition of aerosol filter samples and concentration of aerosol particles from Tuktoyaktuk were determined during July—September Although our analysis could not identify distinct sources, the results suggest that this moderately sized community in the Canadian north was influenced by a wide range of aerosol particle sources with complex processes.

The observed aerosol particles were likely derived from local natural sources like marine and mineral dust and anthropogenic sources like the combustion of fossil fuels and road dust, while emissions from the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field; the Smoking Hills; bird colonies on Banks Island; mining activities in northern Canada, Russia, and Alaska; and mineral dust from active source regions in the Arctic are possible regional sources of aerosol particles, pursuant to air mass back trajectory analysis Figs.

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