A Significant Familial Relationship In Pollocks Play

Friday, March 11, 2022 7:30:44 PM

A Significant Familial Relationship In Pollocks Play

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Real Talk: Strengthening Family Relationships

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Hancock and Hutchinson in different ways were both secretive and provocative, and this did nothing to ease the conflict that was bound to break out. The whaling connections in both America and London involved in the notorious tea deal are fascinating. Historians usually mention only the problems the East India Company had in offloading its huge tea inventories at the expense of the American colonies, not the ideas that several merchants had, of carrying tea between London and America and sending whaling products from America to London as a regular trade, and a linked trade.

Something is gained by knowing that John Hancock's ship the Hayley , Captain James Scott, came into Boston Harbour from England, in November, with the provocative news that vessels with dutiable East India Company tea were on their way. American historians suggest that the Hayley had left London at the same time as the controversial tea ships. Aboard the Hayley was Jonathan Clarke, a young Boston merchant who had in London obtained a tea cargo for his family firm, evidently carried on the William.

By late September, Rotchs were expecting to ship whale oil back to London on Dartmouth's return trip, then to load London spring goods for Boston. Note 84 Many indications suggest that once the original complicated tea deal had been made in London, Hancock and his whaling associates in London and America may have been planning to regularly ship English East India Company tea to America, and send whaling products back, providing, in Hancock's view, that England gave no offence by imposing tea duties. Note 85 Other writers suggest that the handling of the bills of exchange would also have financially disadvantaged the Americans.

The London tea dealers were chiefly the directors of the East India Company, and their functionary, a clerk at their warehousing committee, William Settle. Chairman of the court of directors was Crabb Bolton. The Company's warehouse committee made a short list of American firms said to be interested. Final decisions on the participants in the deals were made between 4 and 20 August, The London merchants were then to book space on ships bound for America.

One London merchant experienced in American trade, Richard Reeve, wrote to Lord North that the terms of the deal - especially the time by which the tea duties were to be paid and other monies remitted to England - might be regarded as inflammatory in the colonies. His warnings, like other warnings, were not heeded. Alderman George Hayley offered the space on the ships Dartmouth and the London , which was also American-owned, at Charleston.

By early September the shipping was organised. Boston firms involved in the tea deal included the Hutchinsons of Boston, namely the governor's two sons, Thomas and Elisha and, secretly, the governor himself. Governor Hutchinson had been writing to a London merchant, William Palmer, for some months. Also involved also were Richard Clarke and Sons. Thomas Hutchinson Junior had married the daughter of Richard Clarke. By late September, another Boston consignee was Joshua Winslow. In London, Benjamin Franklin's first reaction to the news of the Tea Party was to suggest that Boston reimburse the tea merchants.

The directors of the East India Company are said to have remained calm, and kept in touch with Lord Dartmouth. Dartmouth's secretary, John Pownall, Note 88 was embarrassed that Dartmouth had not even known of the East India tea shipments. One of the London merchants' go-betweens with Lord Dartmouth appears to have been the Philadelphia merchant Gilbert Barkley. The London merchants made no bitter demands that the Bostonians be punished, and by March, were still confident that Boston would make reparations.

Lord North did not appreciate their views, and when approached by merchants such as Champion and Dickinson, Note 89 Hayley and Hopkins, and Lane, Son and Fraser, dismissed them, as he dismissed an offer by London's Lord Mayor that the City would cover the losses. Given alderman George Hayley's original role, it is curious that by January, Note 91 he came to represent London merchants who were petitioning that the English merchants were threatened with ruin, since in view of the risk of hostilities there were serious doubts as to their ability to collect the large debts owed to them by American planters.

Later, clearly from , if not before, Samuel Enderby deliberately waged maritime war on the East India Company - and as far as rights to sail the Pacific Ocean are concerned, he won. Note 92 The whalers' strategy is evident both in the record on the deployment of shipping, and in successive Acts of Parliament governing which waters the whalers could sail. There is no necessary connection between the Boston Tea Party, the outbreak of the American Revolution, Hayley's role as a whaling investor, Enderby's career as a whaler and the deployment of shipping to early New South Wales.

Yet Enderby lived side-by-side at Blackheath with other merchants who had lost more heavily than he had by the American Revolution. The merchants of "the Blackheath connection" all supported government policy on convict transportation. Most importantly, with the exception of Duncan Campbell, the Blackheath men let their ships to government as convict transport ships. Campbell sent no ships to Australasian waters. Rather surprisingly for a traditionally West India merchant, he conducted his own "swing to the East". From he involved his ships and his own son John, as captain on some of those ships, in East India Company trade to India Madras.

I have earlier described the shipping, both naval and commercial, that Britain sent into Australasian waters between and , as an extended "burst" of shipping. Spate's remark that Enderby's had always had their eyes on New South Wales is accurate. Note 94 Admittedly, the shipping record in either primary or secondary sources does not encourage the impression that such ship deployment had been skilfully planned - but this matter will also be addressed here.

Naturally, the oddities and accidents of maritime life disturbed the original patterning of the movements the ships were supposed to take over such long voyages. If merchants were involved, was it worth their while commercially? Generally, William Richards excepted, they were involved in such a range of commitments and risk investments that their Australasian business did not dominate their concerns, and the profits they made on this business were not excessive - except in the case of the Second Fleet. The merchants were not specifically interested in developing a wide-scale interest in shipping to Australasia - exploration first had to be conducted and the opportunities available did not warrant a large investment.

It may have been that by , William Richards had realised that this was the conclusion of his rivals. Then, Richards had attempted to step in to capture a larger slice of the business in his own right, a move the other merchants, or government, quickly stemmed. Indeed, one might be hard put to prove that London businessmen have ever taken a different view about Australasian investment opportunities available since Note 95 For any individual businessmen who did not aim to leave England to go to Australia, investment in Australia would have been no more than an extra opportunity to form a more diverse and wide-ranging portfolio.

Regarding the Botany Bay debate, this realisation puts the "trade position" squarely in its place, but it also affects the "convict dumping ground" position. Note 97 This estimate does not include money reimbursed to a merchant not treated here, and not from Blackheath, Alexander Davison. For the shipping used, this does not seem an excessive amount. However, once their ships were in Australasian waters, the merchants found that new opportunities arose which made their efforts worthwhile to them.

This implies of course that as the whalers promoted their industry, lobbying politicians and seeing the passage of Acts of Parliament which expanded the waters legally available to them, Note that the whalers were carefully reassessing their options in the light of new information on the Pacific as it came to hand. If Samuel Enderby lost money, reputation, or prestige when his hopes in for the development of a South Whale Fishery were dashed, it may have been that he remained resentful, not only at the rebellious Americans and their revolutionary war against England, he may also have carried a grudge against the East India Company. Certain aspects of his career appear to flesh out such a surmise. He was however not the only one of the Blackheath merchants under consideration here who lost by the American War.

Note Duncan Campbell after the close of the American Revolution developed a habit of lobbying government about the debts he and other merchants had seen repudiated by the rebellious Americans. I have mentioned that merchants disgruntled about their losses in America during formed the Committee of Merchants Having Traded to America Prior to The British Creditors. By , Duncan Campbell had become chairman of this national body of disgruntled merchants. On 30 November, , Campbell and others lobbied government yet again on the issues. By he was associated in this with one John Nutt and one William Mollison, both of whom apparently were new members of the Merchants Trading. Note This lobbying late in was just after Macaulay's ship Pitt had taken convicts to New South Wales, and only shortly after the Third Fleet, which was half composed of vessels from the South Whale Fishery, had departed England.

It was also only months before John St Barbe would send out the Britannia , the ship he part-owned with William Raven, who was so helpful to the early colony and the officers of the New South Wales Corps by sailing to various ports for stores. In the s, agitation for the resumption of the transportation of felons as it is usually viewed by historians was taking effect in the political process. When Cabinet decided to send felons to Australia, there were few dissenters. Most of the country agreed with the measure, especially George III.

Later, maritime links were forged between London and Sydney. As the links were forged, government was deliberately being prodded - and reminded that notable merchants had lost significant monies by the outcome of the American War. Where did some influential merchants live? In the domain of an aristocrat and minister, a friend of the King himself, and one who had failed to find a way to keep that conflict from escalating. James Mario Matra's well-known remark of - that Britain by settling the Pacific might "atone" for the loss of the American colonies - was perhaps a far more politically pointed remark than is usually thought, a jibe at Earl Dartmouth from a disenchanted Loyalist who knew some background on the outbreak of the hostilities.

The atoning was to a significant extent orchestrated from Blackheath, with repercussion in the City of London through various administrative offices and procedures, later echoing down the Thames and across to Botany Bay. The patterns in the maritime history, the "swing to the East", can encourage such a view. However, Blackheath, or London, did not house all the English merchants who had lost by the American War: some were in Glasgow. Note Blackheath in this light then was literally a hothouse for the resentment of London shipmen and merchants inconvenienced by the outcome of the American Revolution. Yet, histories can seem filled with inconsistencies. Watkin Tench of the marine detachment at Port Jackson remarked that New South Wales "stands unequalled" as a site for transportation, but "When viewed in a commercial light, I fear its insignificance will appear very striking".

Note Sydney did better than insignificance, especially by the time its prospects had become known to American ships and to traders in India. Much could have been done by the British government to deliberately improve the colony's commercial vibrance, if it had chosen to do so. With all business, the question "Where does the money go? With the case of some of the merchants who were dealing with Sydney and taking the long-term financial risk of opening the Pacific, it is now apparent that some of the profits from carrying convicts flowed straight back to Blackheath, and less so into the coffers of the those "dogs in the manger", as Sir George Young called them, the East India Company.

Note The Company only wished to issue charter parties or licences for tea carriage. Some Blackheath merchants however coveted Pacific whale oil, and seal fur to gather, from Nootka Sound on the north-western coast of Canada, the nearest England would ever get to the fabled North West Passage. For others there was China tea and India cotton to bring home. The rest was politics - which is the art of the possible. In the circumstances, it is unwise to resort to a conspiracy theory about the support given to a new colony by merchants, and perhaps wiser to instead look for the victims of the politics undertaken.

The victims of government's policy on resuming transportation were many. Apart from Australian Aboriginals and the convicts, the victims included Jeremy Bentham with his hopes of building a new prison system styled after his panopticon; Alexander Davison, who despite his friendship with Nepean had his hopes of regularly supplying the colony dashed; and a variety of merchants who had backed out of any involvements by Another victim was the East India Company, which had its monopoly charter abridged and then further eroded by government support for the whalers.

The major victim of the politics was William Richards. The death throes of his ambitions are recorded in the Banks-Richards Correspondence in the Historical Records of New South Wales , Note which outlines Richards' campaign to keep business to New South Wales largely in his own hands. His ambition was not supported by government. From November, , once he realised how he had been outmanoeuvred, Richards assailed Duncan Campbell's position as hulks overseer, in what resembles a concerted effort to overturn what had been done hitherto in the region of New South Wales by Camden, Calvert and King, and the whalers.

Richards fought on two fronts. He claimed he could manage hulks in Britain - much as Campbell did, Note only more cheaply - at Milford Haven in Wales. Richards also wished to keep sending convict transports to New South Wales. Alluding to the Bounty voyage, he even suggested regular voyages to transplant Pacific flora in non-Pacific areas. Richards' campaign failed miserably. Jeremy Bentham was also promoting his panopticon, and assailed Campbell's hulks management on quite different grounds. Note By Bentham was aggressively challenging the very legality of transportation to New South Wales. By November, , as I have mentioned above, Campbell and other merchants who had lost by the American War, including G. Macaulay, were yet again lobbying government, wishing for assistance in retrieving their debts.

St Barbe was also arranging to send out Captain William Raven with the Britannia , which St Barbe co-owned, to explore the potential of Australasian sealing. And so in this sense, St Barbe's name could as easily be attached to the early maritime history of New Zealand, as Raven's name has been attached. The range of the efforts the Blackheath merchants were making over was considerable, and concerted, suggesting a determined gathering of energies to hold their plans together and to keep goals and achievements intact. It is easier to realise this than to make a full assessment of their motives; any such reassessment means examining each ship's voyage in detail. It seems also clear that the combination from of war and wartime inflation, fewer convicts being sent to New South Wales, and presumably the extent of their existing commitments, prevented merchants from creating a stronger profile in Australasian affairs.

By the mids, the whalers had decided to concentrate more on the whaling grounds of the Peruvian coast. Ways to profit were being sought, more than being relied on. But as ways were sought, the merchants involved, not unnaturally, had other business in London to supervise which had nothing to do with Australasia. Trade involving New South Wales was but one cog in a machine, that, as with the Nootka Crisis, occasionally needed violence, or the threat of violence, for it to be kept going.

A new view on Camden, Calvert and King, London slavers:. Within months he had been recruited by Camden, Calvert and King to return to Sydney with more convicts along with surgeon Augustus Beyer, who later went to India as a trader. Note On 1 May, the African Company began overtures to the Board of Trade proposing the incorporation of a company, the St Georges Company, with an exclusive right to export to and import from the new colony of Sierra Leone. While some historians have noted the close coincidence of the British efforts to colonise both Sierra Leone, and New South Wales, Note the interest of members of the African Company in both ventures has not been canvassed. Similarly unnoticed is the fact that the slavers attempted to undermine the efforts of more idealistic Londoners in respect of both these colonising efforts.

The American Revolution was not the only reason why English merchants, including some of the Blackheath connection, turned their eyes to the East. Slavery and the slave trade made up another aspect of Atlantic commerce which was also suffering from the great political and ideological changes of the day. In London, one result was that Camden, Calvert and King moved their capital into underwriting at Lloyd's, and from they remained ensconced there in presumably relative comfort until their deaths. Note Thomas King later sat with the board of the innovative some said destructive Red Book at Lloyds from the late s.

By May , while the Second Fleet brutality was proceeding on ships managed by Camden, Calvert and King, the Board of Trade was considering various matters: trade possibilities at Nootka Sound, the cultivation of hemp in Quebec but not New South Wales , the South Whale Fishery and a policy letter on whaling from the under-secretary of the Home Office, Evan Nepean. On 7 April, a draft report of the Lords of the Committee for Trade commented upon earlier memorials concerning whaling. Note Lord Hawkesbury was enthusiastic about encouraging the whale fishery, with the idea that it could become a pioneer of commerce in unfrequented seas.

Note This is just one detail in documentation illustrating the ambitions of Blackheath-based merchants. Calverts were deeply involved in whalers' business at this time, keeping their eye on advantages they could link to Australasian possibilities. Since they had placed a few ships in the South Whale Fishery, operating off the African coast. Note From late with the whalers they mounted the Third Fleet. Then from November, they also became embroiled in another bitter argument over Africa trade in a way suggesting that their business methods were consistently arrogant, exclusivist, and brutal.

In December, one Joseph Sayver Sawyer? Since Calvert was on the board of the African Company and, presumably, suffered a conflict of interest Camden and King joined with another African merchant, Collow, in complaining to the Board about Miles' trading. Note Allegations were also made about irregularities in the governance by Richard Miles in the region of Annamboe. Liverpool slaving merchants meanwhile informed the Board they were willing to back Miles, and so a feud between London and Liverpool slavers may have been at the heart of this commercial conflict.

On 14 May, the Board again discussed the complaints of Camden, King and Collow about Miles' conduct, and also read a memorial from Miles' brother claiming that Calverts had been "cruel" to Thomas Miles, and that "these very men had been enjoying and still continue to benefit by a free and almost uninterrupted monopoly of the trade at Annamboe". On 18 May, Calvert and King and four other African merchants attended the Board conveying that Miles had broken navigation laws, had caused trade rivalries all along the African coast, by employing American-built ships, a practice forbidden by the African Company.

The Board's enquiries continued at least until June. In the same month - June - Donald Trail was acquitted for alleged crimes with the Second Fleet trip. Note Thus, while Calverts were awaiting news of the success of their investments to Sydney and India by the Third Fleet to New South Wales, they were also shoring up their trade pattern about Africa by recourse to one of the highest bodies of appeal in the land. In time they would be forced to change their pattern as the anti-slaving lobby gathered momentum in London. And so they went into underwriting. The firm's links with both Africa and New South Wales, and their conjoint interest in trade to India a matter on which the East India Company would have frowned , have been repeatedly overlooked. All one can presently suggest is that more information on the destruction of the London slavers wrought by the abolition movement would throw more light on Calvert and Company.

Lloyd's listings indicate that the firm split and then moved more into underwriting ship insurance as the rundown of slaving reduced its attractiveness as a commercial proposition. Anstey has commented on the major London-based merchants in the slave trade, and has referred to Calvert and Collow as being active in a shipping business that was anyway running down and destined for abolition by Note Far more detailed information is available on the Bristol and Liverpool slaving shipping as the abolition movement gathered force, than on the reactions in London, which rather makes the shadowiness of Calvert in London even more suspicious.

From the point of view of the East India Company, the renegade character of Macaulay and others sending ships to New South Wales, and applying to send even more ships than they would actually be permitted to send, deserves close inspection. The indications are that an independently-minded and maverick group of merchants interested in opening the Pacific was based at Blackheath. It is probably more appropriate to regard them as pro-Pacific, rather than specifically pro-whaling or as anti-East India Company. In this sense, all connotations of pro and anti must be cast in terms of the East India Company's consistently negative attitude to opening the Pacific on anything but its own terms.

As we see below, from the mids, the connections of the London Missionary Society at Blackheath were highly pro-Pacific and recruited independently-minded East India ships husbands to further their aims. As historians have worked in Australia since World War II, they have observed, created, or re-created various traditions. This has been done by focusing attention on the early governors; sorting the extent of real versus alleged criminality in convict numbers; reassessing the significance in social history of the question of "the convict stain"; inserting much more information about Aboriginal peoples into the historical record; defining Australian nationalism; and commenting on the derivation, nature and character of the links between Australia and "mother England".

In so doing, they have inexplicably broken with a quite sensible tradition - sensible because it turns up indispensable information on maritime matters - that was established before World War II by historians interested in convict transportation to North America. In the way they treated transportation from England to North America from to , writers such as Oldham and A. Smith Note clearly indicated that a suitable density of material exists concerning the involvement of merchants, and the exploitative style of their commercial dealings as they forged links between England and her colonies. Note None of these writers have had the benefit of access to the Duncan Campbell Letterbooks, which stretch from , but nothing they suggest contradicts anything in those letterbooks.

Australian historians - excluding Bateson, who has been cited but not followed up - seem to have adopted the view that because transportation to Australia was officially conducted by government, unlike transportation to North America, it is unnecessary to look at the commercial behaviour of English London merchants in this connection. This view has damaged Australian economic history. The damage could be rectified with little effort. Lists exist of the names of English merchants taking contracts to transport convicts, and an examination of their activities could well support a broad hypothesis that links between those merchants and Australian merchants and shipping agents had manifold ramifications for business generally in early Australia.

This situation has arisen partly because the roles of the East India Company and the South whalers have not been properly examined. Unexamined errors and misconceptions from the past have meant that, since so many ships which had merely been licenced by the Company for a Pacific voyage have been described as East Indiamen, when they were not listed by Lloyds as East Indiamen, a seal has inadvertently been placed on the biographies of shipowners. During the s, a curious reaction to these problems set in, where more ships than the facts will allow were identified by historians as whalers.

While both kinds of errors have persisted, Thomas Shelton's lists of shipowners sending convict ships to New South Wales have been ignored - and his lists contain more merchant names than does Bateson's book, The Convict Ships. At the Old Bailey, and answerable to the Home Office, Thomas Shelton until his death in was the only official given the authority to make out contracts and bonds for convict transportation. Note By , Oldham Note had looked over Shelton's Contracts but had not dwelt on convict contractor names beyond Bateson by had listed many contractor names from other sources, but had not perused Shelton's Contracts. In fact, Shelton's Contracts list many names Bateson does not, and so it is hard to explain why some merchants dealing with Shelton were interested.

The greatest surprise with lists drawn from Shelton's Contracts is that between June Contract 63 and June , Contract , Joseph Lachlan took 84 contracts to transport convicts. This seems an unreasonable number, more so if Lachlan's associates are unknown, as they are. Bateson does not elaborate on Lachlan and may have been unaware Lachlan was so deeply involved. Bateson has full listings of all convict ships.

Should all the contracts be gathered for all convict transport ships sent to Australia, including the ships sent from Ireland, a full list of convict contractor names could be compiled. Note At present it is unknown what significance a formerly unknown merchant name such as that of Martin Lindsay might hold. The Blackheath Connection however holds up significantly in one case after - that of the name Dunbar. In memory of that loss of lives, the anchor of the Dunbar has been implanted in cliff rock at Watson's Bay, Sydney.

The attached plaque does not say that Duncan Dunbar, apart from being involved in passenger transport, was later a major convict contractor to Western Australia. He was also a member of the Blackheath Golf Club. Note In such a context, Joseph Lachlan, directing 84 ships, taking 84 contracts to transport convicts, poses many enigmas concerning the nature and extent of his other business in Australasia, and questions about those with whom he dealt. In Australia, history students are placed in an unreasonable situation: one can read British maritime history, or Australian history - but to do both at the same time is lethal to the extent that glaring problems, contradictions of plain fact, errors, oversights and omissions, and obvious questions that mischievously remain unanswerable, arise numerously and quickly.

Australian History generally is preoccupied with land-based questions. That this situation exists in a country so conspicuously situated on the rim of the Pacific Ocean, and wishing to take on a dominant role in that region, seems severely inappropriate when the mercantile aspects of convict transportation can still yield new material. One might almost say that the Australian public's emotions in this respect - curiosity about the Pacific - have been both captivated and captured by the legend of The Mutiny on the Bounty, and have progressed no further. One more point can be made about Blackheath.

Note The Blackheath Connection can be divided into phases. Phase 1 lasted from until , when Macaulay busted financially and Samuel Enderby senior died. However, a second phase began about He become concerned that he "could not feel but deep regret that so beautiful a part of the creation" was, amongst other things, peopled with heathen cannibals. Note One of his associates became Joseph Hardcastle. Note Haweis, credited with the creation of the LMS, was chaplain to Lady Huntingdon, the aristocratic evangelist of Methodism whose mission had been aided by Lord Dartmouth. Having heard of the mutiny on the Bounty and also that Bligh would command a second breadfruit voyage, Haweis conceived the idea of sending missionaries out by Bligh's ships to Tahiti.

After the mutiny on Bounty , Peter Heywood had taken an opportunity to compile a vocabulary of the Tahitian language, a copy of which Haweis later managed to obtain. With the idea of sending two missionaries to Tahiti, Haweis met with Bligh one morning at Bligh's house and used every argument he could muster, including Bligh's own "miraculous escape" to Timor by the open boat voyage, to try to interest Bligh in the proposition. Elizabeth Bligh's warmth to the idea finally led Bligh to consent. Unfortunately for Haweis, the two young men initially volunteering to be trained as missionaries for the project withdrew. Afterwards, Haweis always bitterly referred to them as deserters.

By , however, Haweis had realised that only an interdenominational organisation would suffice for the conversion of the Pacific heathens and so was formed the LMS. Maritime activity remained nil until a captain could be recruited. By Haweis mounted the resources to prepare the ship Duff for a first missionary voyage. Chief mate for the voyage was Wilson's nephew, William Wilson. Note Whilst Duff was prepared, Joseph Hardcastle, a devout merchant of Ducksfoot Lane, London, and also Blackheath, originated a scheme whereby the missionary work might be made self-supporting by the sale of exotic artefacts imported from the Pacific. It was James Duncan of Blackheath, and lately involved in the convict service to New South Wales, who dealt with the East India Company when the LMS decided to backload China tea as a way of defraying the cost of the voyage after missionaries had been dropped at Tahiti.

The assurance provided, Duff received a charter to backload tea. The Duff arrived at Tahiti on 5 March, Within two years, some of the missionaries had become so unpopular with the natives they were sent from the island, and travelled to Sydney on a ship commanded by Charles Bishop, Note who sailed for the Bristol South whaler, Sydenham Teast. Later, some of the missionaries were employed at Sydney by the noted merchant who had emigrated to there from India, and was commercially growing in stature yearly in Sydney, Robert Campbell.

The Duff meantime had proceeded north, and at Typa Harbour on 22 November met Britannia , the captain of which, Dennot, had only recently been exonerated at Sydney for brutality on his convict transport. Note There had been an inquiry after which Dennot had softly murmured "it is human to err" and been let go. Duff arrived back on the Thames with a convoy of East Indiamen on 11 July, Note The book was printed by one T. Gillette, a name known also to the East India Company, as the family dealt to India. Such connections gave William Wilson further inspiration. He shortly purchased from the Larkins family one third of their ship that had already been to New South Wales, Royal Admiral 1.

Note On 23 July, , Wilson wrote to Haweis that he had lately been at the office of the Duke of Portland, Secretary of State, where it had been agreed by the under-secretary that he might use his new vessel to transport convicts. After the delivery of convicts and private trade goods at Sydney, Wilson met the missionaries who had already been banished from Tahiti, and through them met Robert Campbell. Later he sold the ship to government and by March, , she is said incorrectly to have become a convict hulk on the Thames. William Wilson meanwhile entwined his business affairs so closely with Robert Campbell that when Campbell in unsuccessfully confronted the South whalers about an import to London of his own Robert Campbell's whaling produce, Wilson was bankrupted.

James Duncan when in contracting for the "fever ship" Hillsborough had also arranged for that ship to take several missionaries to Sydney. Note So he continued his association with the LMS, which in a sense became one of the band of operators in the convict service to New South Wales. For his part, William Wilson had seen his career take many strange twists and turnings, and with his associates he is yet another figure amongst the London merchants of the Blackheath connection. The evangelical persuasions meanwhile, originally shared by William Richards and Sir Charles Middleton in , surfacing later at Blackheath in the form of the LMS and some of its associates such as Joseph Hardcastle, are curiously, like Freemasonry at Blackheath, another strong cultural influence linking Blackheath, New South Wales and the broader Pacific.

The inspection then of the milieu and biographies of the men of the Blackheath Connection enables one to press more deeply into the interstices of the institutions explicitly or implicitly used as the British government sent convicts to New South Wales. One finds more information on London's aldermen, on how contracts were allocated for transportation, on London's whalers, on marine insurers at Lloyd's, and on Australia's first industries, whaling and sealing. Lack of space, however, makes it impossible to trace why Alexander Davison, prevented or dissuaded by circumstances from about from further provisioning of the colony at Sydney, expressed his disappointment as he did to Sir George Young in Note It has been impossible to explore some material related to various persons - such as Matra - who in lobbied government about various forms for a colony at or near New South Wales, and whose ideas if adopted would have meant a greater influx of free people to Australia, and hence colonialism conducted with a different spirit.

Note It has been impossible to explore relationships between ships captains employed by the Blackheath men, and the officers of the New South Wales Corps known to have engaged in trading. It suffices then to have identified a London suburb where research may be focused in future, and to suggest that various profits arising after merchants resident at Blackheath had sent ships into Australasian waters, were concentrated back in that suburb.

Specific arrangements between those merchants can be identified, but otherwise, too little is known. It does seem that while some commentators might object on moral grounds that merchants took any profit at all from deals relating to transportation, as they did, the profits do not seem to have been excessive putting aside the case of the Second Fleet. What was far more objectionable, overall, was the financial behaviour and general attitude of the officers of the New South Wales Corps.

It is not impossible, of course, that some of the London merchants involved had made arrangements with those officers before the officers had left England. Here, one would like to know more about merchants with whom John Macarthur, especially, became acquainted - or reacquainted? The major finding is that whether such merchants had engaged in any kind of secretive conspiracy or not - and I conclude that they did not, except against the East India Company - their involvements with the early colony at Sydney did not loom especially large in their overall plans. After , the institutional setting was more relaxed, Australasian opportunities were better measured.

London merchants taking contracts were drawn from a different sector of the City - and had a different style of relationship with the East India Company and the whalers, both, a matter probably also linked to developments in the battle of the Red Book and the Green Book at Lloyd's. Before , Australasian involvements were an underpinning helpful to merchants' various strategies. Their common strategy was to outmanoeuvre the East India Company, a goal they achieved with a remarkable use of cunning and a goal not easily seen as obvious in studies on England's post "swing to the East". What is even more remarkable, given that these merchants sent ships onto waters, through climates and by coasts that were unfamiliar, is that they lost so few ships. St Barbe's last Australasian involvement was in , when he did lose a ship, about the Philippines, the convict transport Tellicherry , usually used by him as a reliable East Indiaman, and listed as such at Lloyds.

Note Overall, it is surprising that England did not send more commercial ships into the Pacific than were sent. Part of this surprise is how unknown are those few East India Company ships not managed by Company renegades, that did try Australasian routes. Some historians writing on Britain's "swing to the East" after the loss of the American colonies have regarded the establishment of a new penal colony as part of that swing. In respect of the men behind the shipping sent into Australasian waters, their response to the attitude of the East India Company was to virtually demand a chance to participate in this "swing".

Where the company was unco-operative, these merchants manipulated a wide range of measures to ensure their demands were met. Ultimately, it appears that the arc of this "swing" involving Australasian waters was captured at the expense of the East India Company, and represented a humiliation of the Company, a view which contradicts traditional lore on the political history of the Company, but is entirely supported by records on convict shipping and the activities of the South whale fishery. It is also supported by Lloyd's own separate published listings of ships and their principals in the service of the Company as well as an examination of names mentioned in Shelton's Contracts, since many convict transports bound for Australia were insured with Lloyd's.

The merchants of the Blackheath connection had such capital, resources, skills and opportunities, that they could in the strictly financial sense have done well enough without mounting their involvements to the new colony. This suggests that their deeper motives for being involved were strategic: they made a limited use only of the colony. Their motives were strategic in the way that daring entrepreneurs usually refine and exploit new opportunities - preferably with home government support, cunningly using institutions, engaging in self-interested propaganda exercises, opening new territory in their field, manipulating markets if possible, wishing to cross national borders, and utilising audacious blends of opportunistic, ad hoc planning, and controlled anarchy.

In all this the South whalers are conspicuous, and so far as some historians' arguments run, that the early colony at New South Wales might have supplied masts, spars, canvas, foods, sails, ropes water and other stores for naval ships or East Indiamen, it seems as relevant as it is obvious that convict transports, whalers, sealers and any other English ships in the Pacific, and, regulations permitting, American ships as well, would also have needed such equipage and more to the point, paid good money for it, if it could have been provided. To , however, evidence of shipmen of any description making significant numbers of such financial transactions at Sydney is limited, to say the least. New South Wales began as a place of punishment by exile.

Initially, an overriding concern was that as a convict colony it would become self-sufficient. If, once "the length of the voyage", as Lord Howe called it, proved safe or inexpensive enough, and mercantile opportunities presented themselves, there were enough other merchants of means in Blackheath alone to have made moves which could have given the colony a different social and economic history. Indeed, one can well wonder what happened in the minds of wealthy, competent and visionary Englishmen - there were plenty of them - to the dream that England had long cherished, of settling "the great Southland"?

Port Jackson, as Governor Phillip said, possessed a safe harbour that could have kept a thousand ships of the line secure. We can paraphrase Phillip here as saying: a thousand commercial ships less the number of naval vessels anchored. We are left with the irony that the merchants who were most interested in Australasia have been much-forgotten, and that of all of them, the most genuine, humane and well-intentioned was probably William Richards, who mounted the First Fleet. Even today, his career can scarcely be termed accessible. The senior echelons of England's merchants were often parliamentarians or were associated with the families of parliamentarians.

If not entering the parliament, merchants could enjoy a political career as a common councilman or alderman of the Corporation of the City of London, or as members of merchant lobby groups. Sources of information on merchants are many. Note That England's senior merchants refrained from involvement with Australasia in such numbers as they did, seems to be adequate vindication of the traditional view - that initially, New South Wales was a mere convict colony - not particularly important and not particularly pleasant. NB: Several addenda follow. Numbered footnotes are given as endnotes after the addenda and include notes to the addenda. A mystery exists concerning Thomas Shelton, the Old Bailey and Home Office official responsible for drawing the bonds and contracts necessary for the transportation of convicts from Britain to New South Wales and, later, Van Diemen's Land.

Shelton's Accounts, some contracts provide an indispensable list of shipowners contracting for the carriage of British convicts until Shelton's nephew John Clark did this work after Shelton's death. Clark was followed by Mr Peake. Those familiar with Bateson's book, The Convict Ships , will find that Bateson had not named all such merchants involved as convict contractors. It is important to note that Shelton did not list merchants taking contracts for the transportation of Irish convicts. However, Bateson conveys a great deal on the transportation of Irish convicts, from the Third Fleet onwards, and so some merchants can be implicated by use of cross-referenced information based on awareness of the ships and ships captains employed. Of course, it is extremely helpful to know about any of the other associates of these merchants, especially, as from Bateson, of their ships captains, agents and other employees.

Circumstantial evidence suggests that the merchants of Blackheath may have suborned Thomas Shelton. With Shelton's Contracts are filed letters indicating that between and , Shelton never once asked for reimbursement for his work in making the contracts for transportation. He had once been ordered to do so, and still had not done it. One question arises forcefully: how could Shelton have been able to afford to remain so much out of pocket for so long? Is such a question relevant? The letters include: Thos Shelton to?? Delivered To Duncan Campbell I am still unsure to which batch of convicts this might refer, but it probably refers to convicts delivered to George Moore.

So by early , Shelton had only managed to ask for reimbursement for a convict contract of From December, he was very busy with First Fleet work. If this was Shelton's usual work pattern, he might then have ordered his convict documentation and evidence of his legal work having been done, and then asked for reimbursement perhaps about or ? But if this describes the usual lag with such paperwork, Shelton still behaved in an eccentric way. John Clark first wrote as Shelton's executor to S. Phillips on 5 January, This request caused a considerable stir amongst officials. Letters quickly wafted. Robert Peel wrote to Goulbourn on 11 January, Undecipherable at the Treasury to?? John Clark on 1 February, wrote to S. Stewart to Hallett, 24 February, Unknown wrote to S.

Phillips, March , a draft; possibly a record of interview with Clark or someone who had known of Shelton's situation. A clerk for Mr Capper at Whitehall, who was involved in convict transportation administration at the Home Office , Everest, wrote to Hallett, 17 April, Stewart wrote to Commissioners of the Audit, 5 June, , a Memorandum Of Information From Mr Clark's Office, Sessions House, Old Bailey, 4 August, , an attempt to explain how Shelton had derived his accounts, noting that Shelton had retained bonds and contracts, but that the assignments of the convicts were lodged at New South Wales [having been delivered to the governors there]. Shelton had always paid his stamp duties on the contracts he made, as he had been obliged to do.

Indeed, this was one absolutely unarguable facet of the claims for reimbursement being made by Clark. On 27 August, , arose a note on an idea of reducing the amount owed to Shelton's estate where King's ships had been used for convict carriage. Stewart, 28 September, , concerned a compromise reimbursement which had worked out by Peel for payment to Clark. On 22 October, , was dated a Memorandum about Shelton's Account. John Clark to the Commissioners for the Audit Office on 9 December, conveyed that Clark had tried to contact a clerk who had worked for Shelton from , and Clark here also was obliged to outline Shelton's authority and modus operandi for deriving contracts and subsequently costing his charges to government.

That is, in an effort to forestall such a reimbursement being made, the officials had even challenged the nature and legitimacy of the authority under which Shelton might have thought he Shelton had been operating. Which of course reveals that by , officials involved in convict transportation administration had lost sight of the situation that had originally arisen in with the deployment of the First Fleet, and the legislation relevant then. Of course, they were still sending convicts to Australia, too, under much-revised administrative arrangements. They had taken the trouble to analyse that system.

That analysis referred to relevant Acts on transportation, , , , , 1 August, , July and August, , and On Shelton's death the official drawing the contracts for transportation became - John Clark. His contract making can also be traced. In the Corporation of London Record Office, Index to Catalog at the Guildhall , is, however, a peculiar entry which indicates among other things that the entire series of contracts for convict transportation to Australia has probably never been perused by a single human eye. Collingridge, of the Public Record Office, on 9 June Once Clark had ceased drawing contracts, such work was taken over by one Peace Peake , an official first mentioned in J.

Sainty's book on Home Office officials, p. Presumably, analysis of the relevant contracts in an Irish archive would clarify information on merchants taking contracts. For example, some merchants making few contracts with Shelton may have made many in Ireland. It would be premature here to suggest which names might be on such an Irish-derived list.

The names of contract takers for Irish transportation could very easily confirm, or disconfirm, some claims outlined in this article. Some merchant names Shelton dealt with between are: Note By , Joseph Pinsent, one contract, ship Juliana. By , George Lyall, three contracts, including Shipley. By , Charles Johnson, one contract, ship Malabar. By , George Faith, two contracts, ship Canada.

By , Henry Taylor, one contract, ship Hibernia. By , John Short, one contract, ship Lord Sidmouth. By , Samuel Francis Somes [noted shipowning family], one contract, ship Maria. By , Matthew Boyd, one contract, ship Almorah. By , Aaron Chapman, one contract, ship Mariner. By , Thomas Barrick, one contract, ship Atlas. By , Charles Raitt, one contract, ship Ocean. By , Thomas Robson, one contract, ship Indefatigable. By , John Goodson, one contract, ship Somersetshire. By , Kenard Smith, one-two contracts, ship Broxbournbury. By , James Smith, one contract, ship Surrey of By , Henry Moore, one contract, ship Wanstead. By , Martin Lindsay, one contract, ship Earl Spencer. By , Peter Everett Mestaer [wharfinger? By , Daniel Bennett [whaler], four contracts.

By , Messrs Mestaer [see above] and Locke, two contracts. By , Joshua Reeve, one contract, ships Perseus and Coromandel of Mysteriously, then, Shelton had not asked for reimbursement. Had Shelton been suborned by any of the merchants named in his set of contracts, or not? Immediately such a question is asked, all the varied implications of a yes, a no or a maybe begin to invade not just the topic of convict transportation to Australia Many questions arise about how and why British merchants explored and exploited the Pacific Ocean.

Mention in this context of the merest possibility of Shelton having been suborned so that merchants might keep contracts in their own hands, should not be taken as referring to anything necessarily conspiratorial. Corruption among legal gentlemen magistrates was common in the period. David Ascoli mentions: "The Middlesex Justices Act was introduced in March, with the purpose of ending the age-old scandal of magisterial corruption.

Certainly, without some such solution it is hard to understand how such a very large sum of money went unpaid for so long. However, finding proof about any such matters remains difficult. Questions related to Freemasonry quite apart, it is obvious that many influential London merchants, who could have been interested in early New South Wales, were not. Thus the merchants who were involved are given a profile.

For comparative purposes I have compiled the following lists of prominent London merchants from the annually-issued Royal Calendar. Thornton, Thos Raikes; later, W. Thornton Jnr. Money, David Scott. From the list of East India Company directors above, only two names can be associated with convict transportation, and these only peripherally, if at all: Paul Le Mesurier as an alderman; and Abraham Robarts, a partner in banking with Alderman William Curtis. The British historian of whaling, A. Jones, has listed the whaler Daniel Bennett as having had an address at Blackheath by , and often after. Note In one of his articles, Jones has viewed Bennett as a more successful and productive whaler than the Enderbys, who were more vocal as promoters of whaling than successful as gatherers of whaling products.

Chronologically, Bennett enters and exits my shipping records as follows. Joshua Bunker. Henry Mackie. Thomas Shelton's Contract No. I have no information at all on Towers, but suspect he had interests in India, as Sovereign , and Captain George Storey, appear to have had connection with other links between India and Sydney, via the activities of the to-be-noted Sydney merchant, Robert Campbell.

Sovereign departed England for Australia on 25 May, , a storeship of tons. Shelton's Contract No. Informal moments between friends and family make the visitor an observer. Stuart Davis — , American Painting, and — Stuart Davis definitely had his say on American modernism. His abstract, yet dynamic paintings contain bold colours and are thereby, according to the artist himself, a unique piece of modernism. In his more recent work, Davis re uses the abstract shapes from his older work. This solo exhibition is about the first to show his latest works next to the old works that served as inspiration.

Visitors become part of this new created world between ground control and space station. Seems like red Bull does give you wings. Employing the device of re-enactment, she creates sophisticated photographic reconstructions of historical paintings which are both uncanny and compelling. Formerly a jewellery designer, the artist switched to photography after her success with the exhibition, Bottom Drawers during the London Design Festival. Shackled, At this exhibition, strings of pearls mysteriously weave in and out of the portraits, either hanging their victims, controlling them like puppets or as an encumbrance to the wearer.

As pearls roll out from the portraits they appear as cheap useless adornments. Trapped within a patriarchal society, women continued to be controlled by male relatives even after their husbands died. Affluent young women were often painted in plush surroundings with few accoutrements, unlike men who were depicted with items signifying their intellectual accomplishments. Maisie Broadhead, Ball and Chain, The eyes of her women assume a downward or averted gaze as a sign of their subordination.

However, the postures in some of these portraits are suggestive of the female non-conformists of the time, like Lady Arabella Stuart who challenged James I to the throne or Aphira Behn, the first woman to make a successful career from writing. Maisie Broadhead, Hung, Installation view Proof of concept Union Pacific All Ruben Grillo had to say, was that all of this is not his responsibility. At all. That means no profound explanation here. You will see and smell chocolate, hay, clay, plastic and more, put together into large, structured sculptures. Keith Sonnier is overtaking London. First as a piece in the Tate Modern permanent collection, then in the Whitechapel Gallery Light Works exhibition, and last but not least in Pace Gallery.

Two of his installations are now presented in the first floor gallery. Being his signature medium for almost 50 years, the bright neon keeps on shining and interacts with art and architecture. Indian Illustrator and sculptor Gerry Judah documents destruction in his extremely detailed maquettes. Artworks that engage with geopolitical issues such as climate change or conflict. For this exhibition, the main focus goes to India and how the environment is changing and being treated over there. Work from three artists are on display at Danielle Arnaud. The performance video shown, was a collaboration between the two Japanese artist. The third artist is 19 century traditional painter Yoshu Chikanobu. Thirty of his woodblock prints, representing female beauty are shown and form the basis of the exhibition.

Olivetti Lettera 22 poster by Giovanni Pintori This is exactly what you think it is: aan exhibition dedicated to one of the leading typewriter brands of the 20th century. Machines so graphic and architectural, they could be artworks. As well as architecture, since the exhibition is part of the London Festival of Architecture. Lauretta Vinciarelli Suspended in blue study 3 , Summer is in town, and what to match better with the sun than bright watercolours. Through her abstract, colourful works you are able to spot the playfulness of the ink. Transparant glowing objects take you away to another world. Wermer translates her view on art history through the use of modern objects.

Both statement and visual entertainment are important. Objects interact with each other. A walk through the clean and empty looking room, will activate the energy and change that thought quite quickly. Same Gallery, different City. Light, colours, action. This is the first time The Noguchi Museum shows work by an artist other than Noguchi. Through a combination of masks, sculptures and murals, this duo portrays a faded presence of a person now gone. Soft pink coloured cut-outs give a vague remembrance of limbs, and almost empty rooms makes us feel that last breath. Because of the use of pastel and playful lines, this is a more happy scene than one would expect. KK Outlet is up for another opening this week.

The -all too familiar- world where we are surrounded by inspiring quotes on life, but also have to fight the impossible beauty standards at the same time, is the main inspiration for these colourful paintings. Aspirational is about the dreams young people create, based on the perfect social media lives of others. We get taken into the lives of insecure girls, feeling their struggle and feeling uncomfortable, watching the cry for help in the intimate setting of the teenage bedroom.

The long, elegant Duveen Galleries at the centre of Tate Britain are again the home for a British artist and his work. Pablo Bronstein has clearly been inspired by architecture, it is shown in his dances, performances and drawings. The next coming months, Bronstein will present us a continuous live performance, inspired by the architectural Baroque period. Dancers and architecture will become one in a very casual or nonchalant way.

Over five decades after his first exhibition, this New York artist has produced a lot of paintings, sculptures, prints and drawings. The Serpentine took the plunch and went through his archive, focussing on his bold coloured, simplified landscapes. This exhibition shows several signature black and white photographs by Hungarian artist Dora Mauer, accompanied by frontage drawings from the 80s and paintings from the 90s, all focussed on geometry and mathematical systems in general. To top it all off Mauer brings two huge wall installations, made especially for this exhibition. Large Glass can be found off the traditional gallery circuit. For this exhibition the contemporary art consists of tapestry by Hellen Mirra an drawings by Allysin Strafella, both from New York and both have been awarded multiple times for their work.

Despite his international reputation, his colourful dramatic ceramics are not that known overhere. Magnus was inspired by traditional Asian ceramics, cave art and modernist abstractions, an interesting combination, what gives his work their specific style. Bejing film and installation artist Caio Fei translates experiences of young Chinese citizens in video installations mixing fantasy and reality. The artist that sees art and technology as a perfect combination, is now showing his work in New York for the first time in fifty years. The room of the present and Light prop for an electric stage are two installations that will be on view, accompanied by -some never shown before- collages, drawings, ephemera, films, paintings, photograms, photographs, photomontages, and sculptures.

All together more than works from this multi-talented artist. A concrete firm gallery filled with large steel sculptures, the industrial vibe is definitely present here. The whole exhibition can be seen as a huge sketchbook where drawings and sculptures become one. Its pattern and form play with our perception thereby concealing its true meaning. Milroy renders pattern as a rhythmical, decorative and repetitive element but one that constantly shifts across surfaces or enters imagined scenarios. The exhibition, Out Of Hand explores the nature of patterns, their spatiality and their capacity to create an appearance of movement. Lisa Milroy, Black Dress, Best known for her skilfully executed paintings of shoes, light bulbs and household objects, Milroy takes inspiration from a variety of subject matters including landscapes, buildings and store fronts.

Her animated dress mannequins assume peculiar poses, either toppling forwards or peering inquisitively through shop windows whilst pressing their white gloved hands against panes of glass. In mirROr, sense of ease or tension occurs as reflections that hover on the glazing create patterns, drawing the eye first towards the window and then to the imagined scene beyond and back again. J, , acrylic on unstretched canvas, x cm. Other patterns are busier and appear almost pixelated, forcing the eye to dance back and forth energetically. Lisa Milroy, Weaving Painting, assorted fabric, oil and acrylic on canvas glued to polyester, wooden batons, eyelets, 28 x 28 x 1cm. Structural patterns of a different nature also fascinate Milroy but not in the conventional sense.

Most delightful of all are her bra and knicker paintings stitched in gathered paper trimmed with china blue frills and bows. Jiggling on tatty wire coat hangers, their lively brushstrokes bob up and down sporadically creating further patterns and possibilities. He had them stored for decades and it is the first time these rare black and white pictures are displayed to the public. Hardy was known for his photojournalistic skills when he was working as chief photographer at the Brittish Photogenic magazine. In their own ways, they were a true radicals, Giacometti a genius of figurative sculpture, Klein a man who invented colours his famed International Klein Blue and upset the art world with his monochromes and exhibitions of nothing.

The difference is that Giacometti used art to find new ways of looking at the body, while Klein used the body to find new approaches to art. Nikhil Chopra is a performance artist whose work centres on the intersections of personal and collective history, and on the nature of processes of transformation. This time he will be incarnating The Black Pearl, Nikhil arrives at Alchemy by boat, starting a performance of ritualised movements that unfold on several days.

As the performance progresses, the enigmatic Black Pearl weaves memories from the rivers and canals of London into large paintings on the windows of Royal Festival Hall. Jean Dubuffet, Inspection du territoire F , acrylic on canvas-backed paper, Well-known for founding Art Brut, Dubuffet championed, throughout his life, the need to continually question the established conditions of art, culture and society. Scultures,installations and photographs that are mixing mathematical geometry, cellular biology and computer algorithms. In this way, Cheeseman tries to show us interdisciplinarity by focusing on methodology andthe materiality of science.

Inspired by aesthetics unique to Chinese cave murals, Mann emulates the colorful, enveloping Dunhuang Caves with her paintings. Walking through the exhibition, the viewer feels like they are entering a haven of both chaos and neurotic control, the size and vibrancy of the art works create a true sense of landscape. Mary Ellen Mark, who passed away last year, is known for her photojournalism, documentary photography, and notably, her portraiture.

Mary Ellen Mark often photographed individuals who, despite being on the fringes of society, projected an unusual degree of self-confidence. They had strong personalities, with a clear sense of self. For Emin, transferring her texts and drawings has often been an important aspect of her practice. This body of work coincides with her newest series of figurative works which illustrate her shifting sensibilities of passion, love and permanence ; themes of provocation and sexuality are apparent in many compositions while others speak of unrequited love, suffering, longing and desire.

This exhibition shows a new series of paintings made with an entirely unique process that Dodge has developed; imagery is generated in 3D-rendering programs and stenciled with thick oil paint onto canvas. Each painting features a patterned fabric optically drafted to imply volume, perspective and gravity. Some fabrics are draped over objects, while others seem to be filled with a gelatinous liquid that oozes out of openings in the cloth. In using these patterns to define his subject matter, he is invoking the body with a bit of the macabre. Anish Kapoor, sculpture for Gladstone Gallery, Both minimal and heavily worked surfaces prevail, as opposing forces retain and reflect light with resounding formal and phenomenological effect.

Some appear as tall majestic stalks with sprouting fronds, and others become wobbly fruits or giant rhizomes and roots that tumble in and out of makeshift architectural spaces. Her work has a playful quality that permits undecided outcomes; constantly emerging, obscuring or reappearing within the confines of the gallery. Thomas explores sculpture through the idea of childhood play whereby her work becomes part of a spontaneous and continually changing process. Thomas is interested in investigating how the activity of play, growth and repetition can inform the adult artistic process, and how play encourages the imagination to transform or even animate an object into something else.

This approach also enables the artist to realise sculpture as an ongoing activity that is both uninhibited and improvised. Kits and Building Blocks, Her sculptures are unexpectedly beautiful with intriguing textures that appear pitted or crystallised. Her installations are site specific so she contrasts her hand-made sculptures with manufactured found objects such as venetian blinds, discarded heaters and shoe racks which she leaves in their original state. The scene resembles the way in which a small child might negotiate an adult space where heights, shapes and sizes fail to correspond ergonomically. Instead, exciting hideaway spaces, precarious surfaces and textures create a desirable setting for imaginative play. The discarded structures also provide a key for the objects thereby creating endless possibilities for further compositions.

The installation can be viewed in its entirety or as individual groupings which the artist rearranges throughout the course of her residency. Mullan, a Berlin based artist, is interested in the veneer of subcultures, observing their presence as either volatile or vulnerable groupings in the context of current events. Above the hard-core and strip-frayed hatching, his brittle surfaces and stark quilts punctuate the grey walls like reflective markers, conveying a prevailing undercurrent of edginess, tension and unrest. Grey walls are currently a recurring feature for the artist and are due to appear progressively darker in his subsequent work.

Mullan is fascinated by the social coding of bomber jackets, a garment manufactured by Alpha Industries for the US Airforce but a design also favoured by Neo Nazis and other youth subcultures. Mullan constructs quilts from the outer fabric and linings of these garments, thereby attempting to devalue their association with aggressive masculinity. B: Cocoa You Cunt? His work for a recent exhibition in Berlin, Die Fuge explored the material in relation to high culture, whereby the entire gallery was covered from floor to ceiling in white tiles. On an aesthetic level, he arranges his network of tiles of varying lengths and dimensions in a composition akin to buildings in a cityscape, juxtaposing diagonal elements within seemingly random patterns to impose a disruptive effect.

His new works utilise the dark tiles from his Popularis series in a dynamic and expanded form by extending the tiled plane three-dimensionally. They also present their own perfume based on The Book of Revelation, created in collaboration with perfumer Euan McCall and more art that combines science, politics and art. His name is mentioned with Kate Bush and David Bowie for being their choreographer. During a live performance in the gallery bar of Ace Hotel he fills a huge piece of paper with his drawings, shown until the end of June and later on turned into a limited edition zine for guests.

May 17 he has a talk with Marc almond about his life and work with David Bowie. Photo by Fraser Marr. Miles Aldridge please return polaroid Lyndsey Ingram. Over decades of photographing, there are also tons of polaroids that stayed behind, snapshots that acted as an approximation of the actual photograph. Not all of them survived, those who did are bundled in a publication and a selection is shown at Lyndsey Ingram, until the end of this week. We are all familiar with Cindy Sherman and her many personas shown in self portraits. After what has been another long break since , she is now back with new work, shown in the Metro Pictures Gallery.

Age becomes the subject and question in these new series of portraits. At first glance, the work of Nina Yuen seems to be an obvious autobiography. We see the artist appear in her films and photographs. Playing both protagonist and narrator, we start to get where the title is coming from. The person in the photographs is functioning as the presentation of the self, showing the different relationships one can have with it. Can we only hear sound?

Or can we see it too? His work is the result of the search to displaying sound. Klimas translates well known songs by Daft Punk and Miles Davis into lenticular prints. Photographing the movement of sound through water is another technique Klimas uses to visualise sound. His creations and displays are the result of thinking, overthinking and simplifying. He shows us the world through his eyes and brain. Found objects form the basis, they go through his transformation before ending up in the customised displays in the gallery. His roots in Minimalism and Color Field painting are clearly present. By taking existing objects out of their context, visitors are forced to rethink their function.

It makes perfect sense. Kristian Fewings Getty Images. Selecting 23 photographers from overseas who have come to these shores armed with rampant curiosity and a killer eye for a great shot, ace photographer Martin Parr has put together one of the most involving and moving exhibitions of the year. Along the way, his subject matter has expanded too, from his original, acid-fried strips of the s, through documentary forays into the lives of obscure blues musicians and Kafka, to his recent magisterial, comic-book version of the Book of Genesis.

This summer Connaught Brown will exhibit some of the most famous European abstract artists of the 20th century that worked directly from nature. Amidst growing tensions in Europe and the approaching referendum, this return to post-war abstraction is particularly significant. As Britain decides its fate on the world stage, this vital exhibition will examine those artists that responded to the parallel crisis of the Second World War with a new lyrical abstraction. Zabludowicz Collection l Emotional Supply Chains. This group show brings together a group of contemporary artists who explore how our identities are constructed in the age of the information superhighway. Of the many incredible things the internet has given us — cat memes, transcontinental instantaneous video communication, limitless porn — maybe the most revolutionary is the ability to redefine ourselves.

Between Facebook, Twitter, online gaming and countless other websites, you can basically be whatever the hell you want to be. The exhibition and documentary also introduces us to the personal lives of Altman and Gates. After spending two months in rural Ireland, immersed in an environment that is harsh, beautiful, exhilarating and mystical all at once, Bob Erickson now presents his collection. A mix of prints, paintings and drawings, these works depicts the climate of northern UK in a way that will move your soul. These iconic pictures are now featured in his latest exhibition at Anders Wahlstedt Fine Arts. Paul Cadmus, Joan E. This exhibition pulls us into that numinous, dangerous decade for queers, shortly after Sylvia Rivera threw the first brick at Stonewall and right before GRID—now commonly referred to as AIDS—decimated legions.

The new show at Tate Britain explores the important period in British history, which changed the way we think about art to this day. At the start of the s, emerging British artists such as Bruce McLean and Richard Long began resisting traditional art thinking by creating works in which the focus was placed on concept and ideation, as opposed to form and beauty. The exhibition demonstrates the radical, provocative, and politically engaged nature of this defining period in art history, showing how conceptual art evolved in Britain. Focusing on activity rather than outcome, these artists were committed to the creative process rather than the end product. By taking part in the work we are helping to destroy it, in other words consuming its presence. Courtesy Tanya Leighton Gallery, Berlin.

One of the particularly bizarre highlights of the display is An Oak Tree by Michael Craig-Martin, which is actually a glass of water on a clear, bathroom-style shelf accompanied by text written by the artist. He claims that the glass has been turned into an oak tree, without changing the outward appearance or properties of the glass. Craig-Martin is trying to get the viewer to start questioning art in general and the ways in which we view and value artworks. Courtesy the artist. Conceptual artists think beyond the limits of traditional art, often using text and photography to place in question the material, aesthetic and philosophical conditions and purpose of art.

They want us to read art, rather than look at it, by employing theory and philosophy to produce work that invites analysis rather than just observation. Some viewers may wonder why work hard to understand what a particular image or text wants us to perceive. Many works on display require explanation, raising more questions than they answer, sometimes leaving the viewer wanting more and in some cases, less. Perhaps closer to 6 p. The occasion was a small solo show by Urs Fischer at the L.

Read More. Sam Miller is a sculptor and painter based in both London and Le Marche and fascinated by intriguing and uncommon forms. Mona Hatoum focuses on ideas of conflict and confrontation, whether it is collective distress felt in war-torn societies or individual traumas inflicted on human bodies. In her first major solo show in London, Tate Modern presents both performance and moving-image works from the s, as well as the installations of commonplace objects in which she has tended to specialise since. Here, the young Canadian artist has created a body of work that includes his recognisable wood-and-steel sculptures, alongside hand-printed and hand-tinted photographs as well as a small series of drawings.

Transfiguration features renowned international contemporary circus artists and dancers, disclosing their unique physicality and exploring the spirit of the performer. Like a mask, layers of body paint and powder disguise the identity of the subject, and release something animalistic from within. In the final images a sculpted, abstract, less human figure emerges. For more than thirty years, Mathew McCaslin has been travelling and creating site-specific art. His work is exciting and often unsettling. He paints landscapes, both physically and metaphorically with electricity. He uses electricity in its rawest form, as a source of light. His light pieces dig deep into our emotions and they create endless environments. His calm, beautiful and thoughtful sculptures are unsettling and almost alien.

They draw us into a world of infinite possibility far beyond what we know and are comfortable with. The art fair that offers a wide range of art, from innovative works from elite galleries around the world, to hands-on DIY projects. Take your chance to be inspired by the works and have some arty interaction. Surprises are just around the corner. Randalls Island Park May 5 — 8 www. The world of marionettes, seen through a vintage camping trailer. This exhibition by Janet Cardiff and George Bures allows you to step in to their realm where marionettes inhibit the world presented by the camping van. Inside this so called world, visitors see a marionette maker being a marionette itself. So meta. A night full of adventure, excitement and bewilderment.

Be warned, this night might not be for those who believe that Illuminati truly exists or for the faint hearted. Discover the stories behind folk art and items once used in spiritual rituals. Prepare for a mystical, or should I say spooky night. For the first time in appoximately fifty years The Museum of Modern Arts will have an exhibition of rarely seen and extraordinary monotypes from Edgar Degas. Around monotypes accompanied by about 60 related works will be featured and only to be seen in this exhibition at MoMA. Featuring the diverse range of art works Von Bruenchenhein created during his lifetime, this exhibition is like no other.

From large-scale concrete masks and chicken bone constructions to visionary paintings and photographic portraits of his wife, these creations are being displayed for the public since becoming the exclusive representative of his estate. He prefers only to make one or two decisions incorporating a tilt here or a swivel there and an element of chance. In the s, Morellet founded GRAV, a like-minded group of artists who regarded the idea of the sole artist as outmoded, favouring instead the idea of public participation. He liked its capacity to be switched on and off, its extended luminance and the fact that it was a manufactured item. Another preference is black sticky tape which he famously adhered to the classical sculptures at the Museum de Fine Arts in Nantes.

His recent exhibition displays a range of his recent and new works displaying delightfully playful and lyrical forms in lines, circles and superimposed shapes. However, according to their testy titles, his pieces appear to be suffering quite a fiasco! Metal tubes looked frazzled with exhaustion and bandaged squares appear forlorn as the narrative continues from wall to wall. Prints were developed and produced by Strand himself, and the quality of production is astonishing. The exhibition is cleverly designed, interfering as little as possible with the works on show. The wall colours for each section are taken from the photo books that Strand designed over the last few decades of his career and all the images are presented in unpretentious white frames, as Strand himself chose to display his work.

The achieved effect is nothing but elegant and sophisticated. The Family is a study of solidarity and intimacy as well as family structures. The Barjeel Art Foundation holds an extensive collection of art from the Arab world. This display looks at the rise of media-based practices among a generation of artists who emerged in the s. Dealing with issues of migration, the aftermath of war and media representations of history and culture, artists such as Lebanon-born Walid Raad and Akram Zaatari construct real and imagined archives out of Beirut and Cairo, while Yto Barrada maps and photographs her hometown of Tangier tracking border crossings and those who hope for a better life across the Mediterranean. This exhibition looks at artists who have sought practices inverse to the individualised, satellite modes in which we are increasingly expected to work, using materials and situations contingent to the places they live, no matter how internationally connected they may be.

In doing so, these artists actualise, imagine or politicise the spaces in which they find themselves; fostering a still-needed sense of locality and producing directed responses to problems definitive of their time, place and situation. She juxtaposes references from the past and present or future , weaving visual and audio material including video clips found on the internet , digital rendering techniques and objects, alongside so-called primitive and high tech elements, creating distinct and evocative installations.

Each piece is thirty seconds in duration and articulates a lesson from the tradition. One of these lessons is painted on the gallery walls. The videos use the idea of inheritance as a departure point, simulating the private-public unconscious of television shows, advertisements, animated GIFs, police cams, surveillance footage, Vines and other digitally-circulated formats. Featuring almost fifty paintings and works created between and , these virtually unknown paintings created by Marcia Hafif will finally be revealed to the people of the United States.

The Space Between Yes And No is a solo exhibition by Madeline Denaro, displaying paintings that seamlessly move between large blobs of chaotic colours and concentrations of patterns, giving a sense of stillness. Her most recent work truly shows her skillful manipulation of materials that have become somewhat of a quintessential when encountering her work. Taking inspiration from folklore, mythical stories and legends from Pindamonhangaba, an area in the Paraiba Valley, Brazil, he created sculptures and wall works to invite the viewers to muse about the complex interplay between mythology and reality in modern society. Exploring a decade in which Philp Guston challenged aesthetic concerns of the New York school, making others question what it means to paint abstractly.

This exhibition sheds light on a series of work that have not been fully appreciated by its peers. Focusing on variations of a specific still life theme; a pitcher and two shells, Paul Resika introduces his most recent paintings. All paintings feature the same objectives, but in various different styles, which as a result giving us a diverse impression of a pitcher and two shells. Each edition in each city is unique and defined by host city and region, which reflecs on participating galleries, presented artworks and parallel programming which is always produced in collaboration with local institutions. If you think the recent arrival of hefty ropes, rings and roly-poly exercise balls at Bloomberg Space constitute a strange, new kind of gymnasium, you might be disappointed!

Grubinger has treated familiar objects in this way before, evident in her menacing black telephone headset from her series, Dark Matter or her over-sized, luxury-look fishing tackle in Decoy Dissimilar from real life problems, disentanglement puzzles ensure a challenge that has a certain outcome; one that can be eventually solved. They present the opportunity to resolve an interesting challenge that may not be available in our working life but one that is relaxing and even pleasantly addictive. So once enlarged, can these puzzles become easier to resolve? Actually, they seem to have the reverse effect. Therefore, her objects appear less as puzzles and more as sculptures, a situation that turns our attention to wider issues.

Disentanglement puzzles are traditionally made from metal, wood, beads and string but for her enlarged pieces, Grubinger has replaced these materials with rope, acrylic-coated balls, chains and chrome-plated metal. For example, on the floor of the gallery lies a wonderfully chunky pair of chrome links: an outsize luxury version of the familiar wire puzzle that spills from a Christmas cracker when pulled. Likewise, beads are swapped for a black shiny ball on a thick chain suspended dramatically from the ceiling. As a seemingly masculine symbol, the heavy ball is displayed at a distance, perhaps intentionally, from the apparent femininity of the chrome links. In this way, both objects exude power but their separation might also suggest gender inequality.

Most of her sculptures resemble immaculately fashioned factory pieces, whereas her smooth wooden disc with a neatly threaded rope reference the finely-crafted high end of the market. Either produced cheaply as Christmas cracker contents or manufactured as intriguing gifts, perhaps disentanglement puzzles remain objects not because they are tactile but because they cannot be easily adapted digitally. The new exhibition at the Serpentine Gallery in collaboration with Moderna Museet Stockholm presents the work of Swedish painter Hilma af Klint — , who is now regarded as a pioneer of abstract art.

Painting in near isolation from the European avant-garde, af Klint stipulated in her will that her work should be kept out of the public eye for 20 years after her death, fearing that it will be misunderstood by her contemporaries. Painting the Unseen at the Serpentine Gallery in London is set to give the artist deserved recognition and celebration of her work. Flawless wall text clearly annotates the paintings without distracting from it allowing wonderful colours translate immediately from small to large in all the paintings. The Swan, No. Consisting of paintings in various series and subgroups, they all symbolise a path towards harmony between the spiritual and material worlds.

Fascinated by the occult in the late s, af Klint founded a group of female artists, The Five, in order to talk to spirits that could supposedly communicate through the act of drawing. Lines and spirals depicted in the paintings seem to indicate movement, along with words, letters and different forms, such as a spiral shell, a snail and waves. The blue colour or the lily for instance, represents femininity, whereas the use of yellow stands for masculinity. The show is dynamic in colour and form and mystical in its abstraction, presenting the artist who dared to think beyond her time, stepping out of what was commonly accepted. Experimental and independent, he was fascinated by the properties of materials, their capacity to contain other materials and respond to light.

His early textural works, made from pre-sewn bags which he packed with sand, allowed the sculptures to take their own form. In order to convey the process of sculpture, he produced a film of a girl lying under a continuous stream of sand which gradually covered the contours of her body. The different textures of his marble and stone sculptures, developed from his earlier textile experiments, sometimes display an element of ambiguity. Her Warm Tit Rolls, originally modelled in clay, recalls the spongy quality of a snail but with the dimpled appearance of older female skin.

His fascination for hares stemmed from his interest in their mythology and peceived enigmatic nature. Barry Flanagan, Ball and Claw, Waddington Custot Galleries. From rentakit housing estates to industrial wastelands and deserted roads, photographer Polly Tootal goes beyond picture postcards to capture less celebrated corners of Britain. For her series Unknown Places, photographer Polly Tootal headed out across the UK to show how exotic and odd apparently familiar vistas can appear. Curated by iconic British photographer Martin Parr, the exhibition includes everything from social documentary and portraiture, to street and architectural photography by leading photographers of the 20th and 21st century. The big names include Henri Cartier-Bresson, Robert Frank and David Glodblatt, as well as a range of artists who are less well-known outside the photography world.

In the midth century, photography was used as a force for social change. It is both familiar and strange at the same time. Photographs capture the child welfare, unemployment and homelessness in a very realistic way, introducing a naturalistic style that shows people in their own environments. The show also includes works made right up to the present day. American photographer Bruce Gilden takes grotesque close ups of people unexpectedly as they walk down the streets of Midlands and Essex. The portraits are far from flattering, in fact they are quite intimidating, revealing every line, blemish and pore.

Exhibition view. By reworking the images of simple beach scenes using polarising filters, she plays with our capacity to process light and imagery. Rayner produces images that are not visible to the eye using a selection of man-made and natural lenses, methods that are unrevealed to the viewer and which therefore retain an element of ambiguity throughout her work. Her unusual compositions demonstrate how the power of the lens can magnify, enhance or intensify our experiences of the world around us. Rayner uses natural lenses as a subject matter in her Solsten lightboxes, a recursion of weathered sunstones backlit to enhance their contrasting symphonies of brilliant blues and emerald greens.

Other work references the use of Fresnel lenses used in lighthouses whose spherical prisms produce a strong beam. Luminous Flux takes its name from the quantity of light energy in visible wavelengths and presents an imaginative array of photographs, installations and delicate designs on glass or textile whilst also concurrently drawing attention to the history of the lens. Rainbows were depicted by early artists as an earthy signifier to the celestial body of Christ. On a more recent note, the Icelandic artist, Olafur Eliasson produced a shimmering rainbow with a perforated hose to explore spatiality. However, Rayner is fascinated by our perception of the rainbow as just a visible arc of colours but has counteracted this notion by producing a circular rainbow with the use of a telescopic mirror for her work, As Seen Below the Horizon.

This work and her Optical Aberrations series underlines the 18th Century problem associated with the early design of the telescope in which glass lenses created chromatic halos around the objects they magnified. Christine Park Gallery. Central to the exhibition is a wall projected video of a glass marble rolling inside the rim of a petri dish which is refracted at timed intervals by a revolving glass prism, causing the moving image to diverge into shadows and embryonic forms.

The petal like quality of Untitled II produces a similar image to her work, Rate of Decay produced by another technique involving time-lapse photography. The last exhibit echoes the watery blue tints of her photographic work, a slither of printed silk draped like a reel of film revealing a repeating pattern of diffused orbs and blurred outlines. The only light came from the beams that shone on each piece, making for an unsettling opening impression. The 35 new miniature paintings commissioned by the Barbican, are rich with gold and red epitomising the opulence and vibrancy of his home of Lahore in Pakistan. The pieces are exquisite each the product of a labour of love and intense attention to detail.

The composition of each scene, featuring flowers, leaves, birds and trees, stays faithful to the convention as Qureshi attempts to incorporate a sense of his heritage into contemporary art. The miniature paintings are hung against a backdrop of crimson red paint splashed across the white walls, and even the miniatures, which drips across the floor like the aftermath of a brutal crime scene. But as you look closer at the angry red splatters there are white flowers sitting delicately amongst the chaos, a subtle reminder of the fragility of the meticulous tradition in a nod to the Mughal masters.

His work is powerfully provocative as he attempts to create pieces where life and death work together, as the initial violence becomes something poetic on closer inspection. For the first time the works of two giants of mid-to-lateth century visual art, Richard Avedon and Andy Warhol are juxtaposed at Gagosian gallery in Britannia Street, one of the most elegant art spaces in London. Avedon and Warhol, both post-war American artists, who ultimately changed art with their parallel creative outputs that sometimes overlapped. The show is connecting dots between the fashion photographer and pop art master in a very inspiring and reflective way, showcasing more than 50 artworks that span from s to s. Together, Avedon and Warhol provided a unique account of post-war American pop culture, the era when legends were born and icons were made.

Nevertheless, both artists realised the creative potential of repetition and mass production. Their most notable images, produced in response to changing cultural values, are now considered icons of the twentieth century. The show is about duality. Two different lives, two mediums and two sets of outcomes displayed side by side to reach one objective. It is interesting to see and compare how both artists portrayed one iconic figure, such as Marilyn Monroe for instance, in two completely different ways.

As well as celebrities and show business, another shared concern was the tyranny of political power that both artists expressed in their works. Sixty-nine portraits of members of the elite political power in America in the s, commissioned by Rolling Stone. The Factory, was a well-known gathering place for distinguished intellectuals, drag queens, celebrities, and wealthy patrons. The success of the show is easily explained by its ability to appeal to viewers who admire glamorous black and white photography as well as those preferring funky pop art. Hailing from New York, Blair Thurman, the artist best known for his large neon-installations and paintings on shaped canvases and wood, showcases his first solo exhibition at Almine Rech gallery.

Previously taking on issues involving sex workers and Danish soldiers fighting in Afghanistan, the hazy, surreal settings only add to the messages of uncertainty, whilst dipping into dialogues concerning human relationships, survival and consumption. Through a new installation, watercolours and pastels on paper, Finch tests the limits of objectivity, pursuing poetic ends with scientific clarity, and analyses the points at which conventional vision vanishes to become something else. Rockman, who has said his work was inspired by childhood visits to the American Museum of Natural History, emerged in the s with fantastical paintings of flora and fauna, often portrayed in post-apocalyptic setting, limned in a style that married dire ecological warnings with magic realism.

His latest show plunges into the briny deep with images of bioluminescent sea creatures lighting up gouaches on black paper. Bernard Frize occupies a unique position in the discourse of abstract painting. By using the colour in an experimental, or technical-mechanical manner, Frize draws attention to painting as a handicraft, while also discounting the idea of artistic creation. The resulting pieces, alluring and locked at the same time, have become a trademark of his oil-slick painting style.

A product of the Russian diaspora that followed the Bolshevik Revolution, Poliakoff fled to the West, educating himself in the art schools and museums of London and Paris. He painted every day while raising a family, supporting this life by playing Russian folk songs on guitar in Parisian nightclubs. Alhambra, the inaugural exhibition of Ibrahim El-Salahi at Salon 94, will feature new works by the Modernist master painter and pioneer of Sudanese art. Born in Omdurman, Sudan in , his remarkable career has had a profound influence on succeeding generations of artists from the region and across the globe.

Utilising the force of cosmic abstraction, they present a mystical brew of experimental pieces produced by combining their own work with that of other artists, craftspeople, sound and filmmakers thereby rejecting individual artistic creativity. The result is a cacophony of experimental ideas exploring the effects of light and transience on the human body incorporating a whole gamut of materials neon light, stained glass and even cake ingredients to name a few.

These artists are not interested in presenting their vision clearly but delight instead in uncertainty, presenting their installations within seemingly unconnected zones thereby promoting a sense of discord and puzzlement. Their opening gesture, a pair of cheeky neon breasts swaps tiresome intellectual chuckles for a refreshing change of the obvious. Further on, neon tubes draggle around a succession of portraits bearing medieval-inspired characters with algetic expressions and deformities formed from uncut gems and a sugary confection of enamel and lead. The haphazard positioning of neon in the latter is slightly less successful and more of a superfluous than complementary element but acts as an effective warm up to the theatrics of their next installation, North Tomb The outcome of lying on light-sensitive linen combined with a fascination in the similarities between her own body and the position of exhumed human relics has resulted in an attractive set of images.

Photograph: Gunnar Meier. From fervent students pouring over bowls of fruit to artists incorporating natural materials into their practise, nature has long been a central theme within art and design. As the human footprint continues to encroach upon our environment, art is used by some to explore how humanity interrelates with natural order. A topic full of breadth with the potential to create room spanning installations or intricate studies, yet artists still fall into the trap of presenting work that moves dangerously close to becoming completely two dimensional.

The Swiss-French artist explores the inherent tension between what occurs naturally and what is due to human activity as part of giving a platform to ecological and environmental issues. The Parasol Unit Foundation, a non-profit institution that is committed to artists and their creative endeavours, is internationally recognised for its thought-provoking exhibition programme. A landscape that when described still evokes a sense of horror that has become rooted within the remaining wasteland. The resulting images are scarred with cloud-like shapes bursting across the sky, taking an event that happened years ago and making it seem mysteriously futuristic.

The globes speckled with muted tones and flashes of turquoise appeared to be floating, a fantastical piece that has a strong political message at its core. Image courtesy of Jessica Rayner. Ten works capture each of its three parts; in hell Dante encounters moneylenders, corrupt clergy, evil sorcerers and other sinners, in purgatory he watches as the negligent and gluttonous perform penance, and in paradise he finds his lost love from youth, Beatrice. It took Botticelli almost 20 years to bring the drawings to a state of near-completion.

The first impression is that they are very faint and sketchy, but once you look closer, you discover marvellous and delicate figures, most in nude, scattered at different angles, in animated poses. Often characters are depicted several times in the same drawing, as a way of illustrating their movement through a scene. While working on the illustrations, Botticelli was exploring the perspective and the position of the figures in a three-dimensional space. For this depiction of Satan, Botticelli used two pieces of vellum stitched together — a double-fold centre-spread of evil.

Centre of Hell. Some of the drawings have traces of colour, suggesting that they were initially all going to be completed with colour, but instead they remained a fragile pen lines on a blank cream background. One thing certain is that these fragile drawings show a spiritual and artistic journey, not only of the great Dante, but also of Botticelli. Spontaneous and radical, graffiti has annexed the walls of Somerset House bringing the unauthorised art of the crowded metropolis into the legality of the gallery space.

This fascinating exhibition, comprising seventeen street artists, challenges the homogenised view that graffiti is an act of vandalism motivated by human misery and focuses instead on its utopian element. A community based art, graffiti transmits its subversive messages through pithy imagery without the need for technology thereby bypassing the limits of state censorship. In some ways, the displacement of graffiti to the art gallery from its context within the cityscape gentrifies its imagery thereby losing its sense of power and immediacy. If the work within this exhibition can be regarded as utopian or not, it still reveals an interesting collection of optimistic viewpoints. The chalky effect of Russell Maurice installation adheres to this transient nature of graffiti.

His cheeky cartoon figures in MDF reclaim space where they can, their gagged snouts popping up out of their papery home sprawled across the floor. Ballard regards these as the positive effects of the continuous redevelopment and regeneration of the city. Sixe Paredes, Untitled 3 Futurismo Series Some of the main pieces of the Russian collection come to London, while the Tretyakov Gallery simultaneously hosts an exhibition of portraits of British icons from the National Portrait Gallery.

Paintings of Russian artists, philosophers, composers, writers and patrons spanning and highlighting an artistic golden age for the nation. Combining Realist, Impressionist and Symbolist pieces, the collection gives credit to some notable Russian artists that are not so widely known in Britain. Achievements of great Russian writers including Tolstoy, Chekhov and Dostoevsky, helped develop an extraordinary and rich cultural scene in Russia before the Bolshevik takeover in , putting a tragic end to a cultural golden age.

The display is a unique opportunity to explore Russian culture through the people who made it great, giving an idea and insight of the development of the country from a historical, creative and artistic perspective. The paintings are grouped by field and include portraits of writers, musicians and patrons, with each category reserving a few highlights. The theatre section focuses on a detailed and very realistic portrait of Chekhov and a large full-length painting of Maria Ermolova, one of the greatest actresses in the history of the Maly Theatre in Moscow, depicted by Valentin Serov. The image has gained cult status in Russia and is still being produced on stamps and different merchandise.

Through the stories of each portrait, the painter and the person depicted, you can get a sense of the political atmosphere and the shifting dynamics within Russian society between and These artists of the age of Tolstoy share the sensitivity, honesty and the searching unease of the writers and composers they portray. Unexpected Eisenstein—sketching the inspiration from revolution in Russia. Unexpected Eisenstein, an exhibition that sheds new light on the life and achievements of pioneering Soviet filmmaker Sergei Eisenstein. This immersive new exhibition invites audiences to consider Eisenstein beyond his cinematic achievements.

Bringing together nearly seventy sketches, designs and printed materials, Unexpected Eisenstein offers a rare opportunity to see this varied and surprising collection of work and for the first time explores his often overlooked relationship with England. Apostolos Georgiou, Untitled, acrylic on canvas, Although rather than having any distinct politically driven images, Georgiou sets stages for grey suited, white-collar workers, making subtle references no doubt to the ongoing economic and social crises in his home country of Greece. El Anatsui, Warrior, Aluminium and copper wire. His new work at October gallery, Russell Square although smaller in scale, the almost incandescent sculptures will be no less mesmerising.

Van Doren Waxter is pleased to present Hedda Sterne: Machines — , an exhibition of mid-century paintings and works on paper by this preeminent figure of the American post war period. The result: Anthropographs, abstracted machines with a humanlike nature. Sterne, a recent emigre from Romania, was deeply affected by the cultural and aesthetic shift she discovered in the United States. The unfinished has been taken in entirely new directions by modern and contemporary artists, among them Janine Antoni, Lygia Clark, Jackson Pollock, and Robert Rauschenberg, who alternately blurred the distinction between making and un-making, extending the boundaries of art into both space and time.

The work comprises 21 photographs, individual sculptural assemblages, and an open-ended labyrinth made from cardboard. Raoul De Keyser, Retour 2, Oil on canvas. Raoul De Keyser: Drift is organized around a group of twenty-two works completed shortly before his death in October , and known as The Last Wall. Together, they revisit some of the major subjects that occupied the artist throughout his nearly fifty-year long career, including the landscape of the Belgian lowlands where he grew up and lived his entire life and the inconspicuous things close at hand.

Shown together for the first time in David Zwirner London last year, these paintings, will be accompanied by a careful selection of works from the s onwards that are likewise representative of these subjects. Carrie Moyer, The Green Lantern, Acrylic and glitter on canvas. One of the most important contemporary artists working with sculpture, painting and ceramics, Woodman presents a vibrant collection of mixed media created within the past ten years, including new pieces made especially for the ICA. Combining wallpaper, vases and other domestic objects seems to subvert how the home is occupied and used, discovering decorative forms and their purpose within the domestic space.

Betty Woodman has been working and creating with clay for almost 70 years, since she took a one-off pottery class in high school. Photography by Mark Blower. The artist playfully combines two-dimensional paintings and three-dimensional vessels, breaking the boundaries of form. The abstract patterns seem to flow across the walls, almost growing through the space. Painting, particularly in recent years, plays a key role in the work of the artist. Woodman has been experimenting with vases for many years, giving them new forms and meanings. All works by Betty Woodman relate to her ceramics, their decorative design, and unusual use of various media that can be seen as a way of exploring her inner sensibility as an artist.

Renee So, Sunset, , knitted linen and synthetic fibre. A collection of new tapestries and ceramics repeating motifs such as disconnected limbs. Drawing from the traditions of antiquity and historical portrait busts, spherical curls of Assyrian beards and lit cigarettes play across both tapestries and ceramics. Elephants feet, anthropomorphic cocktail glasses and giant cigarettes are suggestive of dream logic, the golden age of American advertising and upturned moments of leisure. This brand new body of work is part of an ongoing exploration into currency, history and socio-political issues. Harmony Korine, Pro Stek Circle, , oil on canvas.

Paintings alluding to the phaser effect, these images are symbolic of oscillating sound and hypno-psychedelic effects. Including sculpture, documented performance, installations, photographs and film — Much of his work is concerned with time, the continuous cycle of past, present and future, as well as sudden and gradual physical transformations that have occurred naturally or due to human activity. Anna Ostoya, Slain Abstraction 1 , Oil on canvas.

The original painting depicts the story of Judith, a Jewish widow who saves her people besieged by the Assyrian army. With the help of her maidservant, she plies Holofernes, the army general, with alcohol and then beheads him in his drunken state. A British artist working in New York, Nicola Tyson is sometimes compared to Francis Bacon as both artists pursue a gnarly Expressionistic style of figurative painting in which the human form becomes almost unrecognizable through warping, twisting and other depredations. Tyson, however, is more of an abstractionist, investing much her of energy in color, though she works just as compellingly in black and white.

This show offers some of both with works on paper in acrylics, as well as graphite. This effect is undercut by the inclusion of small, deftly rendered flowers that invite an interior contemplation in the even longer western tradition of nature morte.

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